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Customer Education

Antibiotic Classification

Antibiotic Classification and Modes of Action

Part # 60-00415-0

© bioMérieux, Inc., Customer Education March 2008

1

Customer Education

Antibiotic Classification

bioMérieux, the blue logo and VITEK are used, pending and/or registered trademarks belonging to bioMérieux SA or one of its subsidiaries. CLSI is a registered trademark of Clinical Laboratory and Standards Institute, Inc. Zyvox is a registered trademark of Pfizer Caribe Limited. Tequin is a registered trademark of Bristol-Myers Squibb Company.

© bioMérieux, Inc., Customer Education March 2008

2

Customer Education

Antibiotic Classification

Antibiotic Classification

Module Objectives

Upon completion of this module you will be able to: • Explain why susceptibility testing is done • Define the terms, bacteriostatic and bactericidal • Describe the functional antibiotic classification scheme and list the 5 main groups • Name at least one antibiotic in each class • Describe the structure of a Gram-positive and negative cell • Explain the modes of action for the antibiotics in each of the five functional antibiotic classes • List examples of natural resistance in each of the five functional antibiotic classes • Explain why it is not necessary to perform susceptibility testing for certain organism / antibiotic combinations

© bioMérieux, Inc., Customer Education March 2008

3

Customer Education

Antibiotic Classification

Antibiotics & Susceptibility Testing

Microbiologists work with antibiotics every day. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (AST) is one of the primary functions of the Microbiology Lab. But, how much do Microbiologists really know about antibiotics? Let’s review some basic information and see how it can be applied daily.

© bioMérieux, Inc., Customer Education March 2008

4

Customer Education

Antibiotic Classification

What is an Antibiotic?
Antibiotic is a chemical substance produced by a microorganism that inhibits the growth of or kills other microorganisms. Antimicrobial agent is a chemical substance derived from a biological source or produced by chemical synthesis that kills or inhibits the growth of microorganisms.

The noun “antibiotic” was first used in 1942 by Dr. Selman A. Waksman, soil microbiologist. Dr. Waksman and his colleagues discovered several actinomycetes derived antibiotics. The two terms are usually used synonymously and that practice will continue throughout this presentation. The word “antibiotic” will be used to describe: a chemical substance derivable from a microorganism or produced by chemical synthesis that kills or inhibits microorganisms and cures infections.

© bioMérieux, Inc., Customer Education March 2008

5

Customer Education

Antibiotic Classification

Sources of Antibacterial Agents
• Natural - mainly fungal sources • Semi-synthetic - chemically-altered natural compound • Synthetic - chemically designed in the lab Natural Semi-synthetic Toxicity Synthetic

Effectiveness



The original antibiotics were derived from fungal sources. These can be referred to as “natural” antibiotics • Organisms develop resistance faster to the natural antimicrobials because they have been pre-exposed to these compounds in nature. Natural antibiotics are often more toxic than synthetic antibiotics. • Benzylpenicillin and Gentamicin are natural antibiotics



Semi-synthetic drugs were developed to decrease toxicity and increase effectiveness • Ampicillin and Amikacin are semi-synthetic antibiotics



Synthetic drugs have an advantage that the bacteria are not exposed to the compounds until they are released. They are also designed to have even greater effectiveness and less toxicity. • Moxifloxacin and Norfloxacin are synthetic antibiotics



There is an inverse relationship between toxicity and effectiveness as you move from natural to synthetic antibiotics

© bioMérieux, Inc.,...
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