Technology and World Change: Plastic Surgery, Now and Forever

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Term 1, 2010/2011

Technology & World Change
Professor Pang Eng Fong
Web-Based Group Project Assignment
Plastic Surgery: Now & Forever

Class:G2
Group Members:Jesslyn Phoon Ying Chong
Rayson Lee Rui Sheng
Isaac Chin Yi Sing
Shaun Teo Wei Wen

Table of Contents
1. History Of Cosmetic Surgery3
2. Reconstructive Surgery4
2.1 Medical Purposes4
2.2 Birth Defects5
2.3 Traumatic Injury6
3. Cosmetic Surgery7
3.1 Breast Augmentation7
3.2 Liposuction8
3.3 Sexual Rejuvenation8
4. Drivers & Implications9
4.1 Economic9
4.2 Socio-cultural10
4.2.1 Implications10
5. Future and Emerging Trends and Technologies11
5.1 Stem Cell Treatment12
5.2 Minimally Invasive Procedures13
5.3 Robotic Surgery14
6. Conclusion15
Bibliography16

1. History Of Cosmetic Surgery
The earliest traces of Plastic Surgery date back almost 4000 years ago in ancient Egypt with evidence of skin grafts being used for the treatment on the face to repair fractures and facial injury. But the earliest written record was by Hindu surgeon, Shushruta in 600BC on procedures done on the nose, now known as Rhinoplasty. There were also traces in ancient Rome of breast reductions done on obese men and reconstructing ears and noses sliced off in gladiator fights(Lanham, 2009). Given that the procedure was done before polymer plastics was found, it is interesting to note that the term “Plastic” is derived from the Greek word plastikos, which means to mold or shape. During the Middle Ages in Europe, Plastic Surgery became less popular due to a number of factors. First, it was deemed sinful by the Church as it is believed that the body was a work of God and should not be mended. Second, the procedures were known to be very painful, as anesthetics were not developed until the 19th century. It was only after local anesthetics became available that people were more receptive of the idea of Plastic surgery. Thirdly, the risk of infection was high as antibiotics were not available, the techniques and equipment were primitive and hygiene safety standards only started to improve during the Renaissance area. Apart from the invention of anti-infection drugs and anesthetics, other non-medical events also changed people’s attitudes towards plastic surgery. The two World Wars changed attitudes towards reconstructive surgery as it was used to mend disfigurements such as shattered jaws and open skull wounds(Lanham, 2009). The original intention of Plastic Surgery was mainly reconstructive, that is to correct aesthetic or functional problems. The first Plastic Surgeon in the United States, Dr. John P. Mettauer work on Cleft Palate patients in 1827(Schnur & Pamela, 2010). However today, plastic surgery has branched into two main fields: Cosmetic Surgery and Reconstructive Surgery. The techniques may be similar, but the intentions and results are different with the former being about enhancing physical appearance and the latter closer to the original intention, though the line between the two can sometimes be blurred. Today, Plastic surgery has become much more accessible, with costs and risk going down and a wide variety of procedures available, from the invasive to the non-invasive. Apart from this, with increased prominence and exposure through the mainstream media, more people are considering Cosmetic Surgery as a commonplace procedure. 2. Reconstructive Surgery

Reconstructive surgery can be defined as a procedure that restores the function and appearance of a specific part of the body (Mosby, 2009). In 2009, it was performed 3.5 times more than cosmetic procedures (ASPS, 2010). It is appropriate under 3 conditions: 1) medical purposes, 2) birth defects and developmental abnormalities, and 3) traumatic injuries (Erhardt, 2010). 2.1 Medical Purposes

Reconstructive surgery is often performed to treat or prevent medical conditions. Among the procedures, the treatment of tumors and skin cancer constitutes...
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