Team Effectiveness

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INTRODUCTION
The revolution of team has been an attractive subject to researchers, management, economists and psychologists. In addition, the bulk of empirical evidence indicates that the role of teamwork is significantly dominant in modern organisations, that is to say, management has relied on teams increasingly because of its implicit outcomes. This recognition of the importance of teams for achieving companies’ targets or tasks has changed the attention of research from an initial focus on individuals characteristics to a broader focus on the fundamentals of teamwork effectiveness in a wide range of different types of team such as work teams, parallel teams, project teams, and management teams (Cordery, 2002). It is no doubt that the performance of teams takes account of success or failure in business strategies. Therefore, the controversial discussion in most of the studies is about the substantial factors improve the effectiveness of teams in contemporary organisations in order to approach goals and enhance competitive abilities. Several performance-related elements are addressed, including work design, group composition, task characteristics and interdependence, and the organizational context. These include a framework for management to operate a team to perform well such as teams should know how to access tasks intellectively and achieve it at an appropriate level of performance; utilise suitable knowledge and skill to overcome confliction, difficulties, and problems; managers should apply good strategies and clear directions for teams in the work.

To the extent of academic theories and empirical researches, this study will identify the possible factors which can have vital influence on the development of teamwork efficacy. In the first sector, in the perspective of work design, the paper will just focus on the impact of autonomy on the quality of teamwork. Next, it will draw attention to the function of training into utilizing the benefits of autonomy while implementing teams. Concentrating on the theory of interdependence, the next phase will discuss about the considerable influence of rewards system on workers’ motivation, especially in team practices. In terms of team composition, the paper will identify the relationship of the diversity of the workforce, team characteristics, and the relationship conflict with team performance in model organisations. Then, the study will turn to the vital role of KSAs in terms of fostering the abilities of team members and improving the outcomes of workgroup.

FACTORS INFLUENCING TEAM EFFECTIVENESS
1. Team autonomy, interdependence, rewards and performance

In academic taxonomy, autonomous teams can be named as ‘self-management teams’ and ‘empowered teams’ who basically work reciprocally or have high interdependent jobs (Guzzo and Dickson, 1996, p.324). They have enough discretion or adequate authorities to approach their tasks and taken responsibility for the outcomes of their work such as designing plans, making schedules, and making decisions in accordance with economic benefits. Likewise, Banker et al (1996) also describes autonomy in a wide range of job design is related to the team effectiveness because it provides the opportunity for workers to make their own decision based on the collective advancement of teams and companies. Therefore, autonomous concept is deemed to bring positive outcomes for organisations such as employees’ satisfaction, commitment, productivity. With s respect to the study by Cordery et al (1991), it differentiates two types of workgroups compromises self-managing teams and traditional teams. The report shows that the former teams had priorities to make decision for such things as assigning tasks between members, and allocating work. On the contrary, the latter was not given such good authorities. As the result, the autonomous work groups were concerned with higher level of satisfaction, commitment, and positive attitudes than...
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