One of the most amazing aspects of human cognitive abilities is the capacity to understand, learn, and produce language. Language is a systematic way to communicate and convey meaning from one person to another using symbols and sounds. It is used to talk to each other, write and email and text. It can also be a tie which connects people together. Language can function as a bridge through which knowledge and findings are transferred to the next generation. Teachers use language to instruct, politicians use language to convinced, traders use language to deal, drivers use it give service, children use it to play because it is a coding system and a means by which information may be transmitted or shared between communicators for different purposes. It manifests the abstract knowledge in the mind to be understood by the hearer. Human is a tool-using creature. The most powerful and effective tool which helps us invent other practical tools is language. Linguistics is the scientific investigation of language, a means for discovering the mechanisms of language by asking well-formulated questions and seeking answers. Macaulay (2011) states that The most important fact about language is that it is a way of communication meaning. If it did not do that, it would be as irrelevant to most of what human beings do as bird song or the sound of the waves. The latter forms of sound are often pleasing to human ears, but they do not help us to conduct our everyday business. Language does exactly that, and more. But from the fact that language communicates meaning it does not follow that it is easy to say what meaning is (p. 1). Considering all these the first question to be answered about language is quite a simple one: what is language? What is language?
Whereas ‘language’ in the abstract is our facility to talk to each other; it is the faculty of speech, which all human beings hold in common, ‘a language’ is ‘a particular code, a particular set of conventions which we operate through the possession of the faculty of speech; and a language is not held in common by all human beings but only by those who belong to a specific speech-community’ (Radhey, 1977). According to Wikipedia (2012) The word "language" has at least two basic meanings: language as a general concept, and "a language" (a specific linguistic system, e.g. "French"). In French, the language used by Ferdinand de Saussure who first explicitly formulated the distinction, uses the word langage for language as a concept and langue as the specific instance of language. When speaking of language as a general concept, several different definitions can be used that stress different aspects of the phenomenon. These definitions also entail different approaches and understandings of language, and they inform different and often incompatible schools of linguistic theory. A universally accepted definition of language or the criteria for its use does not exist. This is one of the reasons for the disagreement among scientists about whether non-human species can use language. In nature we find numerous kinds of communication systems, many of which appear to be unique to their possessors, and one of them is the language of the human species. Basically, the purpose of communication is the preservation, growth, and development of the species (Smith and Miller 1968:265).
The fundamental difference between human and non-human communication is that animals are believed to react instinctively, in a stereotyped and predictable way. Mostly, human behaviour is under the voluntary control, and human language is creative and unpredictable. It is generally assumed that only humans have language. Parts of the problem of differentiating man from the other animals is the problem of describing how human language differs from any kind of communicative behaviour carried on by non-human or pre-human species. Until we have done this, we cannot know how much it means to assert that only man...
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