Taxonomy of the Theoretical Approaches to the Area of Corporate Management

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Taxonomy of the Theoretical Approaches to the Area of Corporate Management JRolling_09/03/2010_Taxonomy of Theories I

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Frederick W. Taylor, The Principles of Scientific Management (New York: Harper Bros., 1911): 5-29

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Individuals at the lowest level seek coping information in order to meet their basic needs. Individuals at the safety level need helping information. They seek to be assisted in seeing how they can be safe and secure. Enlightening information is sought by individuals seeking to meet their belongingness needs. Empowering information is sought by people at the esteem level. They are looking for information on how their egos can be developed. Finally, people in the growth levels of cognitive, aesthetic, and self-actualization seek edifying information. Self actualization: the level of transcendence that individuals at this stage seek information on how to connect to something beyond themselves.

Maslow, A., & Lowery, R. (Ed.). (1998). Toward a psychology of being (3rd ed.). New York: Wiley & Sons [pic]

Schein’s theory has 3 levels of culture, which are necessary to understand for effective leadership: artifacts (surface cultures, such as dress, which are easily seen but difficult to decipher), espoused values (conscious goals, strategies and philosophies), and basic assumptions (unconscious beliefs and values that form the core of culture and affect everything we do). Schein also analyzed group dynamics based on his theory of organizational culture. According to Schein, groups operate within the group culture in the same way that organizations operate within the culture of the organization. Informal groups are divided into 3 classifications:

1. Horizontal cliques: informal groups of similar organizational rank who work in close proximity;

2. Vertical cliques: groups containing various ranks within the same department; and

3. Mixed cliques: groups containing members of different ranks, departments and locations.

--Schein, E. H. Organizational Culture and Leadership, 2d Ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1992.

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Drucker presented managers as proactive catalysts of change. His approach offered a language and set of tools used to communicate and coordinate activities in a coherent and coordinated manner. The Practice of Management Peter F. Drucker; Publisher: Harper & Row, Publication 1954.

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Taxonomy of Theoretical Approach to Corporate Management

1900’s
Scientific Management
F. Taylor
H. Fayol

1950’s
Motivation
A. Maslow
Hierarchy of Needs

1960’s
Complex Man
E.H. Schein

1930’s
Human Relations
Hawthorne
E. Mayo

1960’s
Management by Objectives
P. Drucker

1980’s
Populist Approach
K. Blanchard

1980’s
Empirical Approaches
Theory Z
W.S. Ouchi

1990’s
Empower-
ment
Autonomy over duties

1920’s
Bureaucracy/
Universalism
M. Weber

1930’s
Human Relations
Hawthorne
E. Mayo

1950’s
Motivation
A. Maslow
Hierarchy of Needs

1960’s
Complex Man
E.H. Schein

1960’s
Management by Objectives
P. Drucker

1980’s
Populist Approach
K. Blanchard

1980’s
Empirical Approaches
Theory Z
W.S. Ouchi

1990’s
Empower-
mint
Autonomy over duties

Scientific Management was spearheaded by the movement of Frederick W. Taylor to secure the maximum prosperity for the employer, coupled with the maximum prosperity for each employee.

Most people believed the fundamental interests of employees and employers were antagonistic. Had the attitude that employers used their workmen to get the largest amount of work out of them for the smallest possible wages

1. Higher wages
2. Development of each man to his state of maximum efficiency 3. Highest grade of work for which one’s natural abilities fit 4. Classification of work

1920’s
Bureaucracy/
Universalism
M. Weber

1900’s
Scientific Management
F. Taylor
H. Fayol

Taxonomy of...
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