The cultural sector is one of the most important industry in the world today. It has become a part of economy growth in many countries, having involvement from various creativity areas such as arts, advertising, media, design, and etc. Horkheimer and Adorno (2002) originally used the term cultural industries to refer to industrially produced commercial entertainment: broadcasting, film, publishing, recorded music as distinct from the subsidised “arts”, visual and performing arts, museums and galleries. The cultural sector boost support and interests from the society and mainly the government, helping the nation realize and appreciate arts and culture. Many countries have a rich and historical culture and heritage. Understanding and learning culture has helped many people, especially scholars to study society and history, and how creativity and culture can help form a better society. However, understanding culture not only helps society but also makes a huge impact on a country’s politics, technology advancements and economic development. According to British anthropologist Edward Tylor (1958), "Culture, or civilization, taken in its broad, ethnographic sense, is that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society." Based on the evolutionary theories by Charles Darwin, Tylor (1920) argues that culture has evolved from history, but people across the world have a shared knowledge, belief, customs and basic capabilities. According to a research carried out by the European Commission, the definition of a cultural sector has a more functional orientation. In his book “Economics and Culture”, Professor David Throsby (2001) explains that this definition is characterised as “the activities undertaken by a group of people, and the product of these activities, drawing upon enlightenment and education of the mind”. He then further explains that culture is an intellectual heritage passed down from one generation to another, giving knowledge and value to society. Cultural value can exist in forms of creativity, ideas, etc as well as buildings, art and museums. Throsby (2001) suggests that there is a link between culture and economy growth, and that cultural development must be sustainable. Museums and performing arts have an “artwork” value that provides consumption for society. Culture is a vague notion to various societies. People’s cultural background can be the same, and yet subtle to one another. “The most successful economies and societies of the twenty first century will be creative ones. Creativity will make the difference to businesses seeking a competitive edge, to societies looking for new ways to tackle issues and improve the quality of life. I want all businesses to think creatively, to realise creativity is not an add-on but an essential ingredient for success.” (Chris Smith, Foreword, DCMS 2001, p. 3). And with the growth of the cultural sector, it is important for participation of interested parties and artists, may it be the public or the government, to preserve cultures and boost economic growth.
The researcher will look at multiple nation approach to the cultural sector. The examples of the UK, France and the Nordic countries are examined herewith, because they are representative of different although complementary approaches.
The UK approach – “creative industries”
CREATIVE INDUSTRIES| |
• Approach| -Economic|
• Definition| -“Those industries which have their origin in individual creativity, skill and talent and which have a potential for wealth and job creation through the generation and exploitation of intellectual property”| • Criteria| -“Creativity” as a central input to the production process-Intellectual property (and not only copyright) as a...