Taxonomy

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Term| Definition|
Systematic Biology / Systematics| * Study of the biodiversity * Quatitative science that uses the characteristics of living and fossil organisms(traits) to infer relationships between organisms over time| Taxonomy| * Branch of systematic biology * Process of identifying, naming and organising biodiversity into related categories| Taxon| General name for a group containing an organisms or groups of organisms that exhibit a set of shared traits| Classification| Process of naming and assigning organisms or groups of organisms to a taxon| Taxonomists| Scientists that study taxonomy|

Aristotle’s sorting| * Sort organisms into groups based on shared traits * Horses, birds, and oaks * Relied on physical traits to classify organisms * Proved to be problematic * Similar features are caused by convergent evolution, not from the common ancestor| Natural Groups| * Grouping of organisms that represent a shared evolutionary history * Classified by: 1. Using a set of traits to construct a phylogeny 2. Evolutionary ‘famliy tree’| Carolus Linnaean| * Father of modern taxonomy * Develop binomial nomenclature * Each species received two-part Latin name * The first word is the genus, the second word is the specific epithet * In italics| Reasons having scientific name| * A common name varies from country to country due to language difference * People speaking the same language sometimes use different common names to describe the same organism * The same common name is given to two different organisms * Latin is a universal language, known by scholars| Cladistics| * A method that uses shared, derived traits to develop a hypothesis of evolutionary history * Uses a cladogram to achieve this * Apply the principle of parsimony (the simplest solution is the optimal solution)| Homology| * Structural similarities that stems from having a common ancestor * Comparative...
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