Systems Approach to Training

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Systems Approach to Training

Basic concept
1. I am recommending that we put in place a tried & tested model called Systems Approach to Training (SAT) or Instructional System Design (ISD). Although there are many different approaches defined, the Systems Approach to Training has been the most successful, and is widely adopted by many commercial companies, public institutions and social enterprises in Australia, US, Japan, Singapore and Taiwan. It is a system highly recommended after consultation with Prof Trevor Parmenter of University of Sydney, Centre for Disability Studies [my alma-mater]. Motorola, the Civil Service College and Armed Forces are some good examples of successful adoption of this training model. 2. The ISD [or SAT] model can be illustrated as follows :

Stages in the Instructional System Design (ISD)
3. There are 5 important stages in ISD or Systems Approach to Training : * Analysis
* Design (sometime combined with Development or vice versa) * Development
* Implementation or Delivery
* Evaluation
Analysis
4. Fundamental concept of Training Needs Analysis (TNA)
* Training Needs Analysis (TNA) is the “Identification of training gap and training requirements, as well as the most cost effective means of meeting those requirements”. * It is a systematic method of determining if a training need exists and if it does, what training is required to fill the gap between the required standard and the current actual performance of the Client/employee. * TNA should always be performed before developing any training regime. Needs Analysis ensures transition from ambiguity to “the heart of the matter.” 5. TNA would first answer 3 main questions for the organization and the training professionals: * Is training the answer or is there a better performance solution? * What are the performance problems? Who needs to be trained, and on what subjects? * What will be the result expected of the training regime, and will the expended resources be worth the effort? TNA helps define the entire purpose of kicking the ISD system into motion, and sets the foundation for training design. 6. The role of training analysis is to gather data to build the training objectives and training media, and to better ensure that the training conducted will lead to solving the operational problems. 7. Other than the abilities of the Client, training design should also take into consideration the job duties and responsibilities he is expected to perform, so that he is adequately trained for the essential functions for job success. 8. Therefore, for PWD (Persons with Disabilities), a good TNA should comprise 2 components [adapted from the Centre for Disability Studies, Australia] : a.    Person Analysis

* Client’s disability, education, and social, family situation * Knowledge, skills [incl independent living/mobility skills], attitude, abilities and interests * Work history, habits, and tolerance (ability to meet the physical demands of a job) * Strengths and limitations (areas where he need help)

* Types of help or assistive technology needed in the workplace * Readiness for work & work potential
b.    Task Analysis
* Concurrent with “Person analysis”, it is useful to also perform a Job/Task analysis on the tasks the client is expected to perform – ie. obtaining information about the duties, tasks, or activities involved in doing the job. This helps determine the gap between what the Client currently can do, and what the job expects, and consequently what Training is required for him to do the tasks successfully. 9. TNA typically is conducted using a combination of methods : Vocational / psycho-social assessment tools, Questionnaires, Interviews, Observation of task performance etc. Design (sometime combined with Development or vice versa)

10. This is where the blueprint of the training system is developed. After absorbing information...
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