Systems, Topic 1
System - collection of parts working together, forming a functioning whole.
Three types of systems
Open System - exchanges matter and energy with its surroundings, ex. Ecosystem *
energy from sun, converted to sugar by plant, plant is eaten by a bug - energy exchange *
animals eating each other - matter exchange
Closed system - exchanges energy with its surroundings but not matter, ex. Biosphere 2 experiment *
closed systems do not occur naturally, unless the whole of earth itself is considered a system. Isolated system - neither matter or energy is exchanged, no such systems exist, possible exception of the universe.
Open systems - Steady State
fluctuation around an average
all ecosystems are open systems
most non living stationary systems, ex. a rock
Energy Transfers - Energy is always lost to the environment as heat during an energy transfer — second law of dynamics - a system entropy not at equilibrium tends to increase over time. Negative feedback
Negative feedback tends to damp down, neutralise, or counteract any deviation from equilibrium, and it stabilises systems or results in steady — state equilibrium. Positive feedback
Positive feedback results in further increase or decrease within a system. Positive feedback enhances change in a system and it is destabilized and pushed to a new state of equilibrium. Positive feedback results in a ‘vicious circle.’ If a statement contains the word 'more' or 'continuous' it is positive feedback
All ecosystems are open systems
System - Burning Candle
Inputs - Heat, Oxygen
Outputs - Heat, Light, Smoke
Energy and Material Transfers - energy moves through a system - heat energy is moved/transferred from the candle to the surroundings Energy and Material Transformations - energy is transformed into new/different types of energy - Chemical energy in the candle is transformed into heat...
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