SURROGATE MOTHERHOOD – CHANGING PARADIGM IN INDIAN SOCIAL SCENARIO ** Dr. Mrs. Vijaya Sharma
* Mrs. Jaya Dadhich In all cultures of the world, motherhood is something which is considered to lie at the heart of the meaning of love. The concept of a woman’s love for her children is viewed as the most powerful, ferocious, tender and unconditional love that exists. Motherhood for Indian women is a psycho-spiritual phenomena and not just a psycho-sexual one. This psycho-spiritual meaning of all the institutions of socialization, particularly marriage of which a child is the outcome, makes the Indian context different from other societies. The preparation for mother-baby interactions begin much before a woman actually attains motherhood . Now the term motherhood is expanded to the surrogate motherhood , which means that a women helps women i.e. if any women , couple cannot conceive on their own and want a baby , they now have modern technologies to allow them to have children . Some use medical treatments to overcome this situation , for some no help is available and surrogacy comes to the rescue . Need of surrogacy arises when woman is unable to carry a child due to failure of embryo to transplant , repeated miscarriages , hysterectomy or pelvic disorder , dangerously high blood pressure and heart or liver disease1 . SURROGACY IN ANCIENT TIMES
Surrogacy was known and practiced in ancient times also . One of the first ancient references to infertility occurs in Genesis, when Jacob’s wife, like many of her Biblical peers, was unable to bear a child. After praying to God and begging her husband, she sends Jacob “unto” her maid and then adopts the resulting child as her own2 . In Jewish law, a childless couple falls within the category of personal suffering and there exists a clear obligation to assist them in every permissible way, as long as no one is harmed in the process3 . The Catholic Church’s statement on assisted reproduction is clear: assisted reproduction is not accepted. The Eastern Orthodox Church supports medical and surgical treatment of infertility, and the Baptist, Methodist, Christian Science all have liberal attitudes toward infertility treatments. Islamic law encourages attempts to cure infertility, but only to the extent that IVF technologies involve the husband and wife. In Hindu culture , surrogacy was known in the name of “Niyogi Pratha” In Mahabharta , Gandhari the wife of king Dhritrashtra conceived , after which she delivered a mass , these cells were put in a nutrient medium and were grown in Vitro till full term . Sage Gautama produced two children from his own semen , a son Kripa and a daughter Kripi , who were both test tube babies , like wise sage Bhardwaj produced Drona , later to be the teacher of Pandavas and Kauravas4 . MEANING OF SURROGACY AND SURROGATE MOTHER
Surrogacy is a practice in which one women ( the surrogate mother ) agrees to bear a child for another woman or a couple ( the intended parents ) and surrender it at birth . This provides an opportunity for those woman who are unable to carry a child themselves to overcome their childlessness 5 . Surrogacy is a method of reproduction whereby a woman agrees to become pregnant and deliver a child for a contracted party , she may be the child’s genetic mother or she may , as a gestational carrier , carry the pregnancy to delivery after having been implanted with an embryo .
According to Webster’s New World Law Dictionary , New Jersy , the legal definition of surrogate mother is - A woman who bears a child for a couple that is unable to have children....
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