● BACKGROUND ASSESSMENT DATA
The substance-related disorders are composed of two groups: the substance-use disorders (dependence and abuse) and the substanceinduced disorders (intoxication and withdrawal). Other substanceinduced disorders (delirium, dementia, amnesia, psychosis, mood disorder, anxiety disorder, sexual dysfunction, and sleep disorders) are included in the chapters with which they share symptomatology (e.g., substance-induced mood disorders are included in Chapter 6; substance-induced sexual dysfunction is included in Chapter 10, etc.).
● SUBSTANCE-USE DISORDERS Substance Abuse
Defined The DSM-IV-TR (APA, 2000) defines substance abuse as “a maladaptive pattern of substance use manifested by recurrent and significant adverse consequences related to repeated use of the substance.” Symptoms include use of substances in physically harmful circumstances, impaired role performance (school, work, or home), repeated encounters with the legal system for substancerelated conduct, and experiencing personal problems related to substance use.
Defined Dependence is defined as a compulsive or chronic requirement. The need is so strong as to generate distress (either physical or psychological) if left unfulfilled (Townsend, 2006). Dependence on substances is identified by the appearance of unpleasant effects characteristic of a withdrawal syndrome when a drug is discontinued. Dependence on substances can also be associated with tolerance, in which there is a
ALTERATIONS IN PSYCHOSOCIAL ADAPTATION
need for increasingly larger or more frequent doses of a substance in order to obtain the desired effects originally produced by a lower dose. The individual who is dependent on substances continues to increase the amount consumed in order to achieve the desired effect and... [continues]
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