Study Skills

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Literature Review
Concept of study habit
Introduction
Studying is the interpretation of reading materials. Study habits and skills are particularly important for students, whose needs include time management, notetaking, Internet skill, the elimination of distractions, and assigning a high priority to study. Fielden (2004) states that good study habits help the student in critical reflection in skills outcomes such as selecting, analyzing, critiquing, and synthesizing. Nneji (2002) states that study habits are learning tendencies that enable students work privately. Azikiwe (1998) describes study habits as the way and manner a student plans his or her private reading outside lecture hours in order to master a particular subject or topic. Study habits help students master their areas of specialization.

Isangedighi (1999) observed that
indiscipline, drug addiction, poor socio-economic background of the parents, inadequate motivation on the part of students, lack of information couple with teachers’ nonchalant attitude to work and students’ negative self-concept have often resulted into students’ inconsistent and poor academic performances. Yoloye (1999) submitted that theories of educational disadvantages and social cultural pathology have been most prominent in the explanation of this failure. A growing number of scholars, however, have rejected this latter view and have suggested that many of the problems of learning are the artifacts of discontinuities which are brought about by the separation of learning from real life functions and situations (Fagbemi, 2001) and by the exclusion of the child’s language, values and mode of cognition from the school environment (Ugodulunwa, 2007). It seems that causes of low academic achievement are diverse and cannot be associated with a single major factor alone. For instance, proponents of self-concept have found that self-concept and its variables may be a paramount factor in academic failure. Causes of fluctuating performances among students have also been attributed to teacher-student interactions, (Adamu, 1998), intrinsic and extrinsic motivations, (Tukur & Musa, 2001) and classroom behavior (Tukur & Musa, 2001) and other extraneous variables. However, it has been observed that studies on the relationship between study habit and students’ academic achievement in Nigeria cannot be said to be exhaustive (Ugodulunwa, 2007).

Study habits may be taken for granted, particularly in developing countries. In Africa, there is widespread reading in all scholarly fields, but less is being achieved in writing and publication. Efficient study habits can strengthen writing. Teachers in the developing countries, such as those in Nigerian Secondary Schools, should attempt to “equip students with high level of analytical skills, the capacity for critical reasoning, self-reflection and conceptual grasp and ability to learn autonomously and exercise flexibility of mind” (Simmons 2002). Study habits are actually improving because of the advent and wide use of the Internet, hypertext, and multimedia resources (Liu, 2005). Liu (2005) and Ramirez (2003) report that students print material from the Internet in order to study and read later on. Igun (2005) also found that Nigerians study from materials downloaded from the Internet. Simmons (2002) notes that “good writing spawns from a close understanding of text and great writing result from an interactive analysis and fluency with our reading.” He adds that inadequate writing is a direct result of inadequate reading and studying. Successful achievement in any form of activity is based upon study, interpretation and application (Yoloye 1999); and that study should have a purpose. It therefore depends on individual to decide why he or she wants to study, either to gain new ideas or to find out relationship between two different things. What one learns as a result of study depends on the degree at which one...
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