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Object oriented analysis and design

Object model:
Object oriented technology is built upon a sound engineering foundation whose elements collectively called the object model. Foundations of the object model: The foundation of object model is

• OOP
• OOD
• OOA

OOP:
Object-oriented programming is a method of implementation in which programs are organized as cooperative collections of objects, each of which represents an instance of some class, and whose classes are all members of a hierarchy of classes united via inheritance relationships.

OOD:
Object-oriented design is a method of design encompassing the process of object-oriented decomposition and a notation for depicting logical and physical as well as static and dynamic models of the system under design.

During object-oriented design (OOD), a developer applies implementation constraints to the conceptual model produced in object-oriented analysis. Such constraints could include not only constraints imposed by the chosen architecture but also any non-functional – technological or environmental – constraints, such as transaction throughput, response time, run-time platform, development environment, or those inherent in the programming language. Concepts in the analysis model are mapped onto implementation classes and interfaces resulting in a model of the solution domain, i.e., a detailed description of how the system is to be built.

OOA:
Object-oriented analysis is a method of analysis that examines requirements from the perspective of the classes and objects found in the vocabulary of the problem domain.

The use of modeling to define and analyze the requirements necessary for success of a system. Object-oriented analysis is a process that groups items that interact with one another, typically by class, data or behavior, to create a model that accurately represents the intended purpose of the system as a whole. Object-oriented analysis does not factor implementation limitations into the model. | |

Object-oriented analysis (OOA) is the process of analyzing a task (also known as a problem domain) to develop a conceptual model that can then be used to complete the task. A typical OOA model would describe computer software that could be used to satisfy a set of customer-defined requirements. During the analysis phase of problem-solving, the analyst might consider a written requirements statement, a formal vision document, or interviews with stakeholders or other interested parties. The task to be addressed might be divided into several subtasks (or domains), each representing a different business, technological, or other areas of interest. Each subtask would be analyzed separately. Implementation constraints, (e.g., concurrency, distribution, persistence, or how the system is to be built) are not considered during the analysis phase; rather, they are addressed during object-oriented design (OOD). The conceptual model that results from OOA will typically consist of a set of use cases, one or more UML class diagrams, and a number of interaction diagrams. It may also include some kind of user mock-up.

Elements of object model: Elements are divided into
• Major elements
• Minor elements

Major elements:
1. Abstraction
2. Encapsulation
3. Modularity
4. Hierarchy

Minor elements:
1. Typing
2. Concurrency
3. Persistence

Major elements:
Abstraction:
An abstraction denotes the essential characteristics of an object that distinguish it from all other kinds of objects and thus provide a conceptual boundaries relative to the perspective of the views.

Kinds of abstraction are:
•...
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