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1) What theological concerns prompted Martin Luther's challenge of the authority of the Catholic Church? What specific reforms did he advocate? -The church was saying that you needed to be saved and you needed Catholic priest to be directly involved in your path to salvation. Luther put emphasis on an individual’s personal relationship with God through Jesus.

2) What were the circumstances of the English Reformation?
-Events of the English Reformation were in part associated with the wider process of feudalism and rise of nationalism, rise of common law and more.

3) By the end of the sixteenth century, which European countries had become Protestant and which had remained Catholic? -PROTESTANT: Germany, Scandinavia, Switzerland, England
CATHOLIC: Italy, France, Spain, Portugal, Sicily

4) What are some the reasons suggested for the widespread persecution of suspected witches in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries? - Theories and fears of witches intensified in the 16 century. Religious conflicts of Reformation fed hysteria about witches and devil worship.

5) Why was Charles V, despite such vast holdings, unable to establish a durable empire? What forces worked against such an empire in the sixteenth century? - Pressures from France and Ottomans halted expansion of the empire

6) How did European monarchs increase their power in the early modern era? What are some of the common characteristics of the new monarchs? -Extended their rule by expanding their lands and territories. A monarch is the person who heads a monarchy, a form of government in which a country or entity is usually ruled or controlled by an individual.

7) What is the fundamental difference between absolute monarchy and a constitutional government? -In a constitutional government, the power of the government is limited by some set of rules or document, which sets out the powers given to the government. Other powers are given to other groups, commonly judges and a legislature....
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