In analyzing the macro-environment, it is important to identify the factors that might in turn affect a number of vital variables that are likely to influence the organization’s supply and demand levels and its costs (Kotter and Schlesinger, 1991; Johnson and Scholes, 1993). The "radical and ongoing changes occurring in society create an uncertain environment and have an impact on the function of the whole organization" (Tsiakkiros, 2002). A number of checklists have been developed as ways of cataloguing the vast number of possible issues that might affect an industry. A PESTL analysis is one of them that is merely a framework that categorizes environmental influences as political, economic, social and technological forces. Sometimes two additional factors, environmental and legal, will be added to make a PESTL analysis, but these themes can easily be subsumed in the others. The analysis examines the impact of each of these factors (and their interplay with each other) on the business. Kotler (1998) claims that PEST analysis is a useful strategic tool for understanding market growth or decline, business position, potential and direction for operations. The headings of PEST are a framework for reviewing a situation, and can in addition to SWOT and Porter’s Five Forces models, be applied by companies to review a strategic directions, including marketing proposition. The use of PEST analysis can be seen effective for business and strategic planning, marketing planning, business and product development and research reports. PEST also ensures that company’s performance is aligned positively with the powerful forces of change that are affecting business environment (Porter, 1985). PEST is useful when a company decides to enter its business operations into new markets and new countries. The use of PEST, in this case, helps to break free of unconscious assumptions, and help to effectively adapt to the realities of the new environment.
1.Political factors are how and to what degree a government intervenes in the economy. Specifically, political factors include areas such as tax policy, labour law, environmental law, trade restrictions, tariffs, and political stability. Political factors may also include goods and services which the government wants to provide or be provided (merit goods) and those that the government does not want to be provided (demerit goods or merit bads). Furthermore, governments have great influence on the health, education, and infrastructure of a nation.
The Union Budget for 2003-04 granted 50% reduction in the rate of Excise Duty on Biscuit i.e. from 16% to 8%. The Federation's estimate for the current year indicates a growth of approximately 8% to 9%.
The annual Growth showed a decline of 3.5% in 2000-01 and in 2008-09 it is grow at the rate of 15-17% annually, mainly due to 100% hike in Central Excise Duty (from 9% to 16%). Production in the year 2001-02 increased very marginally by 2.75% where in 2007-08 the growth is around 6.25%.
Though de reservation resulted in a few MNCs, i.e. Sara Lee, Kellogs SmithKline Beecham, Heinz etc entering the biscuit industry in India, most of them, with the exception of SmithKline Beecham (Horlicks Biscuits), have ceased production in the country. On the other hand, the Government of India has identified food processing industries as a priority area to be encouraged for growth and development and created the Ministry of Food Processing Industries (which was till then a Dept in the Ministry of Agriculture), headed by an Ministry of State with Independent charge.
On behalf of the industry, IBMA has been pursing the issue with the Chief Ministers/Finance Ministers of all States and also with the Chairman of the Empowered Committee on VAT, seeking reduction in the rate of VAT on biscuit to 4%.
2.Economic factors include economic growth,...