make based on their personal experiences or limited knowledge. In advertising
industry, stereotypes conform to a visual pattern of appearance and behavior that is
easily recognized and understood to communicate to the audiences. Sometimes
stereotype is deliberately set up to stimulate demand particularly in women and
beauty business. Producers create needs by using images of ideal women which are
unattainable for all but a very small number of women then the stereotype is
reinforced to customers by the presence of advertisement. On the one hand, this
strategy seems to have a powerful effect as beauty industries are continually growing.
On the other hand, research indicates that exposure to images of unrealistic ideal
female bodies is linked to depression, loss of self-esteem and the development of
unhealthy eating habits in women and girls.
Dittrich (1998) reports that the average person sees between 400-600 advertisements
per day, and one out of eleven of these advertisements contain a direct message of
beauty. Guillen and Barr (1994) track a magazine for adolescent girls over 20 years
and found an increasing majority of advertisements and articles promoting weight
loss, while Hertzler and Grun (1990) examined 117 magazines and found and
implication that women need to be slim, as well as fit and young, and to use cosmetic
products in order to be beautiful (Smith, 1997, p. 16). In cosmetic and diet product
industries, stereotypes are used in advertising to reinforce the importance of a thin
body as a measure of a woman’s worth. “Advertising delivers a commentary to
women that, to secure their fascination and preference of men, they will relinquish the
approval and sisterhood of women and that the sacrifice is worthwhile” (Cortese,
2004, p. 25). By presenting an ideal image of ‘perfect... [continues]
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