1. The researchers analyzed the data they collected as though it were at what level of measurement?

d. Experimental

2. What was the mean posttest empowerment score for the control group?

The mean posttest empowerment score for the control group was 97.12

3. Compare the mean baseline and posttest depression scores of the experimental group. Was this an expected finding? Provide a rationale for your answer.

The mean baseline depression score of the experimental group is 14.00. The mean posttest depression score of the experimental group is 13.36. The posttest score is 0.64 lower than the baseline score. This was an expected finding because it was hypothesized that after the completion of the empowerment program the experimental group’s depression would improve.

4. Compare the mean baseline and posttest depression scores of the control group. Do these scores strengthen or weaken the validity of the research results? Provide a rationale for your answer.

The mean baseline and posttest depression scores of the control group have no change and stays at 10.40. These scores strengthen the validity of the research results because it shows that without the empowerment program, the control group’s depression has not improved.

5. Which group's test scores had the least amount of variability or dispersion? Provide a rationale for your answer.

The control group’s test scores had the least amount of variability or dispersion. Their depression baseline (SD=10.34) and posttest (SD=10.34) had no changes.

6. Did the empowerment variable or self-care self-efficacy variable demonstrate the greatest amount of dispersion? Provide a rationale for your answer.

The self-care self-efficacy variable demonstrated the greatest amount of dispersion. The total group’s posttest score is 1.78 lower than the baseline score. Whereas the empowerment variable total group’s posttest score is only 0.11 lower than the baseline...

...EXERCISE16 Questions to be Graded
1. The researchers analyzed the data they collected as though it were at what level of measurement?
a. Nominal
b. Ordinal
c. Interval/ratio
d. Experimental
Answer: c. Interval/ratio
2. What was the mean posttest empowerment score for the control group?
Answer: 97.12
3. Compare the mean baseline and posttest depression scores of the experimental group. Was this an expected finding? Provide a rationale for your answer.
Answer: The mean baseline depression score is 14.00 and the posttest is 13.36 with a difference of 0.64.There is a slight amount of depression after the tools they were using and research was completed but was not enough of a difference to make an impact decision regarding if the strategies were truly effective. Patients were less depressed after the research.
4. Compare the mean baseline and posttest depression scores of the control group. Do these scores strengthen or weaken the validity of the research results? Provide a rationale for your answer.
Answer: It was found that the baseline and posttest for depression of the control group remained the same at 10.4 and these scores strengthen the validity because only the experimental group showed a positive change in this experiment.
5. Which group's test scores had the least amount of variability or dispersion? Provide a rationale for your answer.
Answer: The group with the least amount of variability was...

...HLT362V Week 1 Homework EX#16
Answers for EXERCISE16 page 122 (Questions 1- 4 are optional)• Mean and Standard Deviation
Exercise16: Mean and Standard Deviation
1. The researchers analyzed the data they collected as though it were at what level of
measurement?
a. Nominal
b. Ordinal
c. Interval/ratio
d. Experimental
Answer: c. The researchers analyzed the data as though it were at the interval/ratio level
since they calculated means (the measure of central tendency that is appropriate only for
interval/ratio level data) and standard deviations (the measure of dispersion for
interval/ratio data) to describe their study variables.
2. What was the mean posttest empowerment score for the control group?
Answer: Mean = 97.12.
3. Compare the mean baseline and posttest depression scores of the experimental
group. Was this an expected finding? Provide a rationale for your answer.
Answers may vary. The experimental group subjects scored lower on the depression
posttest (mean = 13.36 vs. the baseline score of mean = 14.00), meaning that they were
less depressed after the completion of the empowerment program. This was an expected
finding, because the researchers hypothesized that the empowerment program would be
beneficial to ESRD patients and result in a decrease in their depression scores. However,
the difference in the depression baseline and posttest means for the experimental...

...“Exercise 11 - Using Statistics to Describe a Study Sample”
“Name:” _Kris Bailey______________________________
“1. What demographic variables were measured at least at the interval level of measurement?”
“2. What statistics were used to describe the length of labor in this study? Were these appropriate?”
“3. What other statistic could have been used to describe the length of labor? Provide a rationale for your answer.”
“4. Were the distributions of scores similar for the experimental and control groups for the length of labor? Provide a rationale for your answer.”
“5. Were the experimental and control groups similar in their type of feeding? Provide a rationale for your answer.”
“6. What was the marital status mode for the subjects in the experimental and control groups? Provide both the frequency and percentage for the marital status mode for both groups.”
“7. Could a median be determined for the education data? If so, what would the median be for education for the experimental and the control groups? Provide a rationale for your answer.”
“8. Can the findings from this study be generalized to Black women? Provide a rationale for your answer.”
“9. If there were 32 subjects in the experimental group and 36 subjects in the control group, why is the income data only reported for 30 subjects in the experimental...

...Exercise16: Mean and Standard Deviation
1. The null hypothesis would be: There is no difference in levels of empowerment, self-care and efficacy, or depression in patients with end stage renal disease that have attended an empowerment program.
2. The average baseline depression score in the experimental group was 14.00. This value is pulled from the Mean Column
3. The baseline number for the self-care and efficacy patients was 89.56, where posttest numbers are 96.00. This should be an expected number as the patient should score higher post program.
4. The experimental group showed a decrease from a baseline of 14.00 to a 13.36. The Control group stayed the same when comparing baseline to Post Test.
5. The mean is 101.08 and is found in the total column, under the empowerment baseline posttest section.
6. The biggest change in mean in the Empowerment group, with a difference of 6.64. The study shows pre and post number for ESRD patient’s that attended an empowerment program, so one would expect that the greatest increase would be in empowerment.
Post Test Scores – Baseline score = Difference 105.04-98.40=6.64
7. According to the Relevant Study Results, the average time that each patient was on dialysis was 52.56 months.
8. The answer would be B, 96 was the average self-care self-efficacy posttest score for the experimental group.
9. The control groups SD of 8.99 indicates the standard deviation....

...EXERCISE 36
6. Can ANOVA be used to test proposed relationships or predicted correlations between variables in a single group? Provide rationale for your answer.
ANOVA cannot be used to test proposed relationships or predicted correlations between variables in a single group because it is designed to test for correlations and interactions amongst groups, i.e. in the test group of patients with OA you are testing the correlations between those who do not use GI and PMR and those that do. Although all participants suffered from OA they were separated into two groups for comparison.
7. If a study had a result of F(2, 147) = 4.56, p=0.003, how many groups were in the study, and what was the sample size?
Number of groups = K
Group degrees of freedom= K-1+=2 = K=2+1=3
K=3 which means the number of groups = 3
Sample size = N
Error degrees of freedom = N-K = 147=N-3 = N=147+3 = 150
N=150 which means the sample size is 150
8. The researchers state that the sample of their study was 28 women with a diagnosis of OA, and that 18 were randomly assigned to the intervention group and 10 were randomly assigned to the control group. Discuss the studies strengths and/or weaknesses in this statement.
One of the biggest weaknesses in this study is the number of participants. There are only 18 women participating. With a larger group of participants you can obtain more credible and concrete results. One of the strengths is that there is in fact a control group, so...

...PEARSON’S PRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT
ANSWERS TO EXERCISE 23
Question 1
The r value for the relationship between Hamstring strength index 60o and the Shuttle run test is -0.149. This r value shows a weak correlation between the two variables, as it is less than the 0.3 threshold for significance. Therefore, the r value is not significant.
Question 2
Between r=1.00 and r=-1.00, there is no difference in terms of strength. Both values are on the extreme ends of the spectrum and signify the maximum significance within the r value scale. A value of 1.00, whether negative or positive, shows that the two variables have a perfect linear relationship, and as such, the independent variable can be used to accurately predict the value of the dependent variable. The only difference is that the negative value signifies that a rise in one variable causes the corresponding variable to drop while the positive value signifies that the rise in one variable causes the corresponding variable to increase in value as well. But strength wise, they are similar.
Question 3
The relationship between the hamstring strength index 60o and shuttle run test index is a negative one. This is signified by the negative nature of the r value (-0.498). A negative relationship occurs when a rise in one variable causes the corresponding variable to decrease in value.
Question 4
This research study had the primary objective of measuring the relationship between muscle strength and...

...1. D. The chart displays the mean and standard deviations for the data set which is the best measure of central tendency and dispersion/spread respectively for interval/ratio measurement.
2. 97.12
3. The mean baseline depression score is 14.00 and the post test mean depression score for the experimental group is 13.36. This shows that the mean for depression in this group decreased. According to the statement that empowerment techniques have an important role in self management of ESRD, decreasing of the depression mean after the test would be highly important or a positive impact on depression although this is not a significant amount of decrease.
4. The means for the baseline and the post test for the control group remained the same at 10.40. This helps or strengthens the researchers claim that there were significant differences between intervention groups and control groups as the control group did not change.
5. The test scores with the least amount of variability would be the empowerment post test scores for the experiment group with a standard deviation of 7.28. This standard deviation is almost a full point and a half lower than the closest standard deviation for the control post test score of 8.73. The experiment group, having the lowest standard deviation, has the least amount of dispersion among patients.
6. The self-care-self-efficiency variable consistently showed a higher amount of dispersion across the board. Whether it was the...

...the control group subjects and the baseline subjects. This data shows that the depression levels of the depression decreased for the experimental group, thus making the case even stronger in favor of the original hypothesis.
5. Since the empowerment posttest scores showed the SD of 7.28 for the experimental groups this showed the least amount of dispersion or variability
6. Since there was the largest SD, a score of 14.88, the self-care self-efficacy scores of the experimental group’s baseline had the greatest amount of dispersion.
7. The mean () is a measure of ____central____ ____tendency_____ of a distribution while the SD is a measure of ______dispersion_______ of its scores. Both and SD are ____descriptive____ statistics
8. In the Relevant Study Results it shows that the mean severity for renal disease was 6.74. The research showed that the dispersion of the renal disease severity scores was 2.97 and there was a range of severity scores of 0-10. The Relevant Study Results showed that there was not any significant difference noted in the renal disease severity scores between the control groups and the experimental groups. The importance of this information is to show that the differences in the variables wasn’t from the differences in the groups from the beginning but from the treatments received.
9. When looking at the average or mean depression scores it was noted that these showed the least change when in comparison to...