# Statistics and Data

**Topics:**Statistics, Data, Statistical hypothesis testing

**Pages:**17 (5221 words)

**Published:**February 22, 2013

Statistics is the study of the collection, organization, analysis, interpretation and presentation of data. It deals with all aspects of this, including the planning of data collection in terms of the design of surveys and experiments.

A statistician is someone who is particularly well-versed in the ways of thinking necessary for the successful application of statistical analysis. Such people have often gained experience through working in any of a wide number of fields.

Some consider statistics to be a mathematical body of science pertaining to the collection, analysis, interpretation or explanation, and presentation of data, while others consider it a branch of mathematics concerned with collecting and interpreting data. Because of its empirical roots and its focus on applications, statistics is usually considered to be a distinct mathematical science rather than a branch of mathematics. Much of statistics is non-mathematical: ensuring that data collection is undertaken in a way that allows valid conclusions to be drawn; coding and archiving of data so that information is retained

Statisticians improve the quality of data by coming up with a specific design of experiments and survey sampling. Statistics itself also provides tools for prediction and forecasting the use of data and statistical models. Statistics is applicable to a wide variety of academic disciplines, including natural and social sciences, government, and business. Statistical consultants are available to provide help for organizations and companies without direct access to expertise relevant to their particular questions.

History of Statistics:

The use of statistical methods dates back at least to the 5th century BC. The earliest writing on statistics was found in a 9th century book entitled: "Manuscript on Deciphering Cryptographic Messages", written by Al-Kindi. In his book, he gave a detailed description of how to use statistics and frequency analysis to decipher encrypted messages, this was the birth of both statistics and cryptanalysis, according to the Saudi engineer Ibrahim Al-Kadi

Importance of Statistics in our Life:

Statistics is a very effective tool, in which you look at past data from surveys or census or simply recorded data over a period of time. It is important because using stats you can view past data to help make business decisions or decisions within any workplace. You can do a statistical test to find out if a new idea or business decisions should be considered or rejected.

It is a systematic approach to investigations during which numerical data is collected and/or the researcher transforms what is collected or observed into numerical data. It often describes a situation or event, answering the 'what' and 'how many' questions you may have about something. This is research which involves measuring or counting attributes (i.e. quantities). A quantitative approach is often concerned with finding evidence to either support or contradict an idea or hypothesis you might have. A hypothesis is where a predicted answer to a research question is proposed

Once you have collected your data you need to make sense of the responses you have got back. Quantitative data analysis enables you to make sense of data by: * organising them

* summarising them

* doing exploratory analysis

And to communicate the meaning to others by presenting data as: * tables

* graphical displays

* summary statistics

quantitative research methodology often allows researchers to identify a cause and effect relationship. Another advantage is that quantitative data reveal measurements that provide meaningful information about the subject(s) of study. The numbers and statistics used in quantitative research allow one to make inferences and evaluations about the subject(s) of study. Statistics is a branch of applied mathematics which includes the planning, summarizing, and interpreting of uncertain observations....

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