Statistics can be defined as the method of collection and analysis of data in such a way as to minimize any uncertainty in the conclusion drawn from the data so as to be able to assess the degree of such uncertainty. It could be observed from the above definition that statistical analysis, error could arise but statisticians need to minimize such errors so as to be able to achieve a desirable result. Also statistics can be said to be; a branch of mathematics that deals with the collection, organization, and analysis of numerical data and with which such problems as experiment design and decision making. In its most common usage, statistic means a collection of numerical facts or data. Some common event of that phenomenon that can be interpreted into statistics are: batting averages, games won or lost. In business, the common examples of statistical information are closing price for share on the stock exchange. Statistical information can also be figures of births, deaths marriages, divorces and contents of publications listing population and economic data. Although it is a powerful tool for analyzing numerical data, statistical application is widely use in all field of human discipline that is why it was referred to as “jack of all trade”. We apply statistics to physical science, biological and medical sciences, statistics guides researchers in determining which experimental findings are significant enough to demand further attention and the physician uses statistics to access the effectiveness of a particular treatment. The role of statistics in sciences cannot be ignored, especially in psychology, sociology, economics and journalism. Journalism is a discipline which entails writing about events that are of interest to people. Journalism, especially in newspapers, is also regarded by many as the "first rough draft of history" because journalists produce news articles to tight deadlines. This affects how readers may perceive those events in the immediate...
...compliments the regular mathematics and therefore both are tested in primary schools. Mathematics is the written application of operation. It teaches students to think clearly, reason well and strategize effectively. Mental Mathematics is the ability to utilise mathematical skills to solve problems mentally. The marks scored by pupils generate statistics which are used by teachers to analyse a student’s performance and development of theories to explain the differences in performance.
The Standard 3 class is where the transition from junior to senior level occurs where teachers expect the transference of concrete to abstract thinking would have occurred.
A common theory by many primary school teachers is ‘Students perform better in Mathematics than Mental math. Mental math is something that has to be developed and involves critical thinking. Mental math requires quick thinking and the student must solve the problem in their minds whereas in regular mathematics, the problem can be solved visually. Therefore, teachers should take these factors into consideration while testing and marking students in these areas.’
In this study, the statistics of 30 students of a standard 3 class of San Fernando Boys’ Government School will be analysed to determine the truth of this theory.
DATA COLLECTION METHODS
Mathematics and mental mathematics marks of term 1 of the class of 2013 were obtained from a Standard 3 teacher of San Fernando Boys’...
...ROLE OF STATISTICS IN NATION’S DEVELOPMENT 

ARCHANA DILIP 
The development status of a nation is under constant spotlight and is a topic of debate and discussion. All nations are deeply engrossed in the race of attaining the status of a ‘developed nation’. Naturally the question arises when can you attribute the word ‘developed’ to a nation. There is no established convention for the designation of ‘developed’ and ‘developing’ countries according to the United Nations system. However the United Nations have set the Millennium Development Goals. The Millennium Development Goals includes: End Poverty and Hunger, Universal Education, Gender Equality, Child Health, Maternal Health, Combat HIV/AIDS, Environmental Sustainability, Global Partnership. Will achieving these goals fetch a nation the developed status? Does a developed nation ensure the happiness of its citizens? Or rather, can these goals be considered as the ultimata? In the attempts to attain these goals, nations unknowingly have had to invite the adverse effects of development. These ill effects mainly include the lack of a secure, peaceful, uncontaminated and uncorrupted environment for the citizens and other living creatures. This very thought brings us to the definition of a developed nation given by the former Secretary General of UN, Kofi Annan. According to him, “A developed nation is one that allows all its citizens to enjoy a free and...
...INTRODUCTION
A. Importance of Statistics
Statistical methods have been applied to problems ranging from business to medicine to agriculture. A review of the professional literature in almost any field will substantiate the extent of statistical analysis.
Accounting: Public accounting firms use statistical sampling procedures when conducting audits for their clients.
Economics: Economists use statistical information in making forecasts about the future of the economy or some aspect of it.
Marketing: Electronic pointofsale scanners at retail checkout counters are used to collect data for a variety of marketing research applications.
Finance: Financial managers have routine contact with information in numerical form. Financial forecasts, breakeven analyses, and investment decisions under uncertainty are but part of their activities.
Production: A variety of statistical quality control charts are used to monitor the output of a production process.
Statistics
the collection, organization, presentation, analysis, or interpretation of numerical data, especially as a branch of mathematics in which deductions are made on the assumption that the relationship between a sufficient sample of numerical data are characteristic of those between all such data.
it is a science which deals with the collection, organization, presentation, analysis, and interpretation of data.
B. Fields of Statistics
Descriptive...
...The Role of Research and Statistics in the Field of Psychology
Abstract
Research and statistics are essential elements within the field of Psychology. Through the evolution of technology, the task of conducting adequate research and statistics methods have become abundant in methodology. Because of such, research collection and experimentation approaches of researchers and Psychologists, greatly vary in specificity. However, one method reigns true and consistent, and that is the Scientific Method; of which will be further explored. This paper will discuss and make sense of the roles in which both research and statistics play in the field of Psychology, and the procedures in which such methods are conducted will be defined. This will include explanations of the validity, importance, and relevance of the above stated procedures, as such are referenced for study.
The Role of Research and Statistics in the Field of Psychology
Research and statistics play a crucial role in the field of psychology, both of which are used to ascertain and examine informational data. Such methods are used to greatly increase the effectiveness and success of an organization or field of study. Scientific or logical informational data is typically established through the use of the scientific method. Over the course of research history and study, the...
...successful that after World War II many companies used similar techniques in
managerial decision making and planning.
The decision making task of modern management is more demanding and more important
than ever. Many organisations employ operations research or management science personnel or
consultants to apply the principles of scientiﬁc management to problems and decision making.
In this module we focus on a number of useful models and techniques that can be used in the
decision making process. Two important themes run through the study guide: data analysis and
decision making techniques.
Firstly we look at data analysis. This approach starts with data that are manipulated or processed
into information that is valuable to decision making. The processing and manipulation of raw
data into meaningful information are the heart of data analysis. Data analysis includes data
description, data inference, the search for relationships in data and dealing with uncertainty
which in turn includes measuring uncertainty and modelling uncertainty explicitly.
In addition to data analysis, other decision making techniques are discussed. These techniques
include decision analysis, project scheduling and network models.
Chapter 1 illustrates a number of ways to summarise the information in data sets, also known as
descriptive statistics. It includes graphical and tabular summaries, as well as summary measures
such as means, medians and standard...
...Trajico, Maria Liticia D.
BSEd IIIA2
REFLECTION
The first thing that puffs in my mind when I heard the word STATISTIC is that it was a very hard subject because it is another branch of mathematics that will make my head or brain bleed of thinking of how I will handle it. I have learned that statistic is a branch of mathematics concerned with the study of information that is expressed in numbers, for example information about the number of times something happens. As I examined on what the statement says, the phrase “number of times something happens” really caught my attention because my subconscious says “here we go again the nonstop solving, analyzing of problems” and I was right. This course of basic statistic has provided me with the analytical skills to crunch numerical data and to make inference from it. At first I thought that I will be alright all along with this subject but it seems that just some part of it maybe it is because I don’t pay much of my attention to it but I have learned many things. I have learned my lesson.
During our every session in this subject before having our midterm examination I really had hard and bad times in coping up with this subject. When we have our very first quiz I thought that I would fail it but it did not happen but after that, my next quizzes I have taken I failed. I was always feeling down when in every quiz I failed because even though I don’t like this...
...of 1000 flights and proportions of three routes in the sample. He divides them into different subgroups such as satisfaction, refreshments and departure time and then selects proportionally to highlight specific subgroup within the population. The reasons why Mr Kwok used this sampling method are that the cost per observation in the survey may be reduced and it also enables to increase the accuracy at a given cost.
TABLE 1: Data Summaries of Three Routes
Route 1
Route 2
Route 3
Normal(88.532,5.07943)
Normal(97.1033,5.04488)
Normal(107.15,5.15367)
Summary Statistics
Mean
88.532
Std Dev
5.0794269
Std Err Mean
0.2271589
Upper 95% Mean
88.978306
Lower 95% Mean
88.085694
N
500
Sum
44266
Summary Statistics
Mean
97.103333
Std Dev
5.0448811
Std Err Mean
0.2912663
Upper 95% Mean
97.676525
Lower 95% Mean
96.530142
N
300
Sum
29131
Summary Statistics
Mean
107.15
Std Dev
5.1536687
Std Err Mean
0.3644194
Upper 95% Mean
107.86862
Lower 95% Mean
106.43138
N
200
Sum
21430
From the table above, the total number of passengers for route 1 is 44,266, route 2 is 29,131 and route 3 is 21,430 and the total numbers of passengers for 3 routes are 94,827.
Although route 1 has the highest number of passengers and flights but it has the lowest means of passengers among the 3 routes. From...
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