Stalin

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3a) Why did Stalin introduce the Five-Year Plans and did they achieve for Russia what Stalin had planned for? Explain your answer. [12] In 1929, Stalin took over Russia who was considered one of the most backward economies in Europe. The Russian economy was in a very bad state, many of the factories were run-down and most people could not fend for themselves. Hence, to improve the economic conditions of Russia, Stalin set about transforming her economical and agricultural sectors by introducing three sets of the Five-Year Plans (FYPs). Two twin policies were introduced as well, mainly industrialization and collectivisation. In general, the FYPs achieved some of what Stalin had planned for, building factory towns and industrial plants and accumulating wealth for the country. However, the FYPs failed in improving the economic conditions of the people. The first FYP was from 1928 to 1932. It was concentrated on expanding heavy industries, transportation and power supply to lay the groundwork for future industrial expansions. There were about 1500 new industrial plants and 100 new industrial towns built under the first FYP too. However, the first FYP did not achieve Stalin’s target to double the output of iron and steel were not met as more time was spent laying the foundations and training the newly recruited workers than doubling the output. The second FYP was from 1933 to 1938. It was the peak of Stalin’s success as it met all targets that Stalin had set. Heavy industries was still the main concern but it shifted some focus to producing manufactured goods like clothing. From 1934 onwards, priority was given to military production in Stalin’s anticipation of another war. Excess weapons were sold to generate revenue for the country and improvements to the transport and communication networks were made. The second FYP achieved Stalin’s target to bring in income for the Russia and develop the country through the growth of factories and machinery by having built a...
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