1. Introduction 3
2. Birth to one year 4
3. One to three years 7
4. Three to five years 9
5. Five to eight years 10
6. Eight to twelve years 12
7. Twelve to sixteen years 13
8. Sixteen to nineteen years 14
What is child development?
Development is the acquiring of skills in all aspects of a child’s life, from birth through to adulthood. There are different areas of child development, I will be looking at physical, intellectual, language and communication, social and emotional, and moral and ethical development.
Physical development: the increase in the bodies skills and abilities, such as gross motor skills, e.g. crawling, walking, jumping, climbing, and fine motor skills, e.g. grasping, pencil control, buttoning clothing, using scissors, as well as coordinating lips and tongue in speech and eating.
Intellectual development: learning the skills of understanding, memory and concentration.
Communication and language development: learning to communicate needs, feelings, desires and concepts with others.
Social and emotional development: learning a sense of 'self', making friends and building relationships, expressing and managing feelings, learning the skills to coexist with others in society.
Moral and spiritual development: learning right from wrong, developing a conscience, evolving personal rules to live by, beliefs and values.
When looking at development one must keep in mind that children are individuals who develop at their own rate, among my own children my eldest son was two and a half before he was putting together sentences, whereas my daughter was talking our ears off by eighteen months. A child’s background will affect development and deprivation can have profound effect in all areas of development.
Birth to one year
The first year of life is a time of rapid growth and development, from helplessness to a curious, mobile, independently minded little being.
0-1 month- Baby has a number of primitive reflexes for survival e.g. rooting and sucking reflexes, the grasp reflex and the startle reflex. A newborns head will fall back when unsupported, legs are pulled up into foetal position, hands usually balled into fists. Reacts to loud noises.
1-3 months- Baby starts to develop head control for brief periods, increasing control of arm and leg movements. Baby will turn head towards objects and people, can grasp a finger or toy.
3-6 months- Baby starts rolling over, can push themselves up on their arms when on their stomach. Baby is starting to sit with support, holds up head. Holds objects and can transfer from hand to hand, uses 'palmar' grasp.
Palmar grasp Pincer grip
6-9 months- Baby can sit without support and reach for toys from sitting, may start crawling or bottom shuffling. Baby may start standing whilst holding furniture and 'cruising' Baby is beginning to use pincer grip with thumb and index finger to pick up small objects, releases objects by dropping, looks for fallen objects.
9-12 months- Baby is becoming mobile, crawling, bottom shuffling or even walking, may crawl up stairs and onto low furniture. Baby can handle a spoon and beaker as well as finger foods, they can point at and poke things with one finger, and can deliberately throw objects.
0-1 month- Baby explores using their senses, stares at faces, can notice changes to breast milk depending on what Mum has eaten, can recognise Mum by smell, prefers female voices and enjoys being held and stroked. begins to develop concepts based on what their senses tell them, e.g. cold, loud, soft.
1-3 months- Baby continues to explore with their senses, recognises parents/carers and responds positively to them, follows movement with eyes, start to understand cause and effect e.g. shaking a rattle makes a noise.
3-6 months- Baby can use their eyes to work out where...