Assignment-2
Submitted to: Dr. Sumam David Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engineering NITK Surathkal

Submitted by:

Rakshith Sharma 10EC87

Vikas Majjagi 10EC107

Mullapudi Srinivas 10EC99

Algorithm:
This is implemented for a range of input values < 0.75 since Xin should be less than 1 for the bit notation we used.Here we use the vectoring Mode of CORIC and its Hyperbolic subcase to calculate Xout=sqrt(xin2 -yin2 ) And yout= 0 Bit notation: [MSB(sign bit)] . [(bit 1 to 15 for +ve fraction)]

If we use xin=M+ ¼ and yin=M -1/4 we can compute xout=sqrt(M). The other equations of the cordic remain the same ie, X(i+1)=x(i)+d(i)*y(i)*2-i Y(i+1)=y(i)+d(i)*x(i)*2-i Z(i+1)= z(i) – d(i)*a(i) where a(i)=tan-1 (2-i) In this case we use 16bit fixed point notation with one sign bit and 15 bits in Q15 notation. A total of 12 iterations are used to reach the result where y(i) is sufficiently close to 0 and x(i) is approximately equal to sqrt(M). In case of hyperbolic, it is necessary to repeat shift iteration number for 4 th and 7th iterations in order to make the series to converge. The final obtained x(i) is to be multiplied by 1.207534056 to get the result. The flow chart for the algorithm implement in the VHDL code is as shown in the following page. d(i)=1 if x(i)*y(i)0

...CAMPUS
PUDUCHERRY
SQUARES AND SQUAREROOTS
GROUP PROJECT
THE PROJECT WERE ASSIGNED BY
SHIFT II
STUDENTS OF CLASS VIII
DONE BY : SONAL.D, MARIYA.R ,
MOHANA.S SHANMUGA PRIYA.U,
PANIMALAR.N,
Squares and squareroots
INTRODUCTION
the area of a square =side x
side (where ‘side’ means ‘the
length of a side’ ) . Study the
following table
SIDE OF A SQUARE
(IN CM)
AREA OF THESQUARE (IN CM2)
1
1 x 1 = 1 = 12
2
2 x 2 = 4 = 22
3
3 x 3 = 9 = 32
5
5 x 5 = 25 = 52
8
8 x 8 = 64 = 82
a
axa=
a2
WHAT IS SO SPECIAL ABOUT NUMBERS?
4,9,25,64
and other such numbers? since,4 can be
express as 2x2=22,9 can be expressed as 3x3=32 ,all
such number can be expressed as the product of the
number with itself
Such number like 1,4,9,16 ,25,.....are known as
SQUARE NUMBER
In general, if a natural number m can be expressed
as n2 , where n is also a natural, then m is a square
number . is 32 a square number ?
We know that 52 = 25 and 62 =36 . if 32 is square
number of a natural number between 5 and 6 . but
there is no natural number between 5 and 6 .
Therefore 32 is not a square number .
consider the following number and their squares
SEE THE FOLLOWING TABLE
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
1x1=1
2x2=4
3x3=9
4 x 4 = 16
5 x 5 = 25
6 x 6 = 36
7 x 7 = 14
8 x 8 = 64
9 x 9 =...

...Model Release
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I hereby release, discharge, and agree to save harmless the Photographer/Filmmaker, his heirs, legal...

...Name: Megan Jackson
Date: November 20,2014
Graded Assignment
Lab Report
You may wish to construct the Punnett squares on scratch paper first before you fill in the Punnett squares on the Lab Report. Answer the questions below. When you are finished, submit this assignment to your teacher by the due date for full credit.
Part 1: Monohybrid Cross—Predicting Freckles in an F1 Generation
Apply your understanding of how alleles assort and combine during reproduction to evaluate a scenario involving a monohybrid cross.
The allele for having freckles (F) is dominant over the allele for not having freckles (f). Some characteristics in people are inherited as simple dominant and recessive traits. One example is freckles. Freckles is a dominant trait, and the lack of freckles is a recessive trait. In this example, a person with freckles is represented as either FF or Ff, and a person with no freckles is represented as ff.
(2 points)
1. Imagine a mother and a father who both have freckles and are heterozygous for the trait, or Ff. They are the P generation, or parent generation. Create a Punnett square to show their offspring, the F1 generation.
Answer:
Part 1 Punnett Square
F
f
F
FF
Ff
f
Ff
ff
(2 points)
2. Calculate the ratios of the genotypes and phenotypes of the offspring in the F1 generation.
Answer:
Genotypes: FF ¼, Ff ½, ff ¼
Phenotypes: Freckles ¾, No freckles ¼
Part 2: Dihybrid Cross—Predicting Flower Color and...

...ROOTS
* is an organ of a plant that typically lies below the surface of the soil.
* a part of a plant body that bears no leaves, and therefore also lacks of nodes.
* is the beginning of the vascular system pipeline that moves water and minerals from the soil up to the leaves and fruits.
FUNCTIONS OF ROOTS:
* Underground (usually)
* Anchor the plant in the soil
* Absorb water and nutrients
* Conduct water and nutrients
* Food Storage
ROOT SYSTEM:
1. Tap root system
* A root system consisting of one prominent main root with smaller lateral roots branching from it.
* Ex: carrots, beets, sugar beets, parsnips, turnips, rutabagas, radishes
2. Fibrous Root System
* A root system consisting of several adventitious roots of approximately equal size that arise from the base of the stem.
* These roots are adventitious which means they can grow from plant organs other than roots e.g. stems.
* Ex: sweet potatoes, cassava
STRUCTURE OF ROOTS:
1. Epidermis – The outer layer of cells
* Root Hair
* An extension of an epidermal cell of a root that increases absorptive capacity of the root.
* Absorptive unicellular extensions of epidermal cells of a root that functions as...

...Greek/Latin Roots
Acer, Acid, Acri- Bitter, Sour, Sharp
Examples:
Acerate : Shaped like a needle.
Acidity: Quality of sourness
Acrimonious: Nagging and bitter
The acerate building towered over me.
The acidity of vinegar made him vomit.
The wife grew acrimonious.
Anni, Annu, Enni- Year
Examples:
Annuity: Money paid annually
Biennial: Occurrence of two years
Triennial: Occurrence of three years
His annuity was a good six figures.
The biennial pie bake-off is being held in Reno.
Arthur won the triennial marathon.
Anthrop- Man
Examples:
Anthropic: Of mankind
Anthropoid: Resembling man
Anthropology: The study of man
Anthropic reasoning creates solutions.
Apes are anthropoids.
Many historians are also anthropologists.
Auto, Aut- Self
Examples:
Autograph: A signature of a person
Autobiography: A story of someone's life written by them self
Automatic: To act by itself
The man signed the picture of himself and handed it to the adoring fan.
The autobiography was a best-seller.
The actor's improvisation came automatically.
Bio- Life
Examples:
Antibiotic: A bacteria killing agent
Biology: The study of life
Biogeny: Development of life
The girl was put on antibiotics for her strep throat.
Biology was a very interesting class.
The boy contemplated biogeny.
Capit, Capt- Head
Examples:...

...√2
Although it wasn't Pythagoras himself who discovered the squareroot of two and the changes it caused to Ancient Greek mathematics as well as the future of mathematics, his follower did and because of this he is mainly accredited. It is not believed that Pythagoras himself who revealed this mathematically changing idea because it went against his philosophy that all things are numbers. It was in reality a Pythagorean philosopher Hippasus who was able to demonstrate the irrationality of the squareroot of 2. The legend is that after doing so he was killed by other Pythagoreans who were scared and frantic by the thought of an irrational number. Pythagoras' follower most likely used a geometrical proof when he was first discovering the irrationality of the squareroot of two. This proof uses Pythagoras' theorem that in a right triangle, a2 + b2 = c2 .
If a=1, and b=1 then 2= c2. Then c=√2 and then you must find c. However there is no rational number which satisfies this requirement. The new idea of irrational numbers changed Ancient Greek mathematics because it created two divisions including no longer just numbers (or algebra) but to geometry. It has been called a "scientific event of the highest importance." Geometry deals with distances and magnitudes and algebra focuses more on numbers. There was a crisis caused by this because in was not possible to express the quantities of...

...while the chromosomes disperse. These growth tissues are found principally in the roots, in the shoots and in the cambium. This experiment aims at observing cell multiplication in the root tip of a garlic root.
Discussion
The purpose of this practical was to observe and identify under the light microscope the stages of mitosis division (interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase) by using tissue fromroot tips.
The root tips were prepared before it was view under the light microscope, hydrochloric acid was added to the root tips in order to destroy the substances that unite the cells but it does not destroy the cell walls. Toluidine dye was used to make the root tips become more visible while viewing. The material was prepared and the slide was examined under the light microscope. Using the low power objective lens it was observed that the cells were very well spread out thru the length of the slide so the reaction of the hydrochloric acid was successful. The thin layer of cells was very clear and very well stained. The nuclei were all blue and the cytoplasm was clear. Using the x10 objective lens it was observed that the size of nuclei was different for each cell. Some of the nuclei were small and some cells had bigger nuclei. This signifies that the cells were in different phases of mitosis. Prophase was by far the...