It is thought that when it comes to motivation, there are two personality types:
Need to Achieve (NACH)
These are the people that thrive on a challenge. They are usually determined, quick workers who take risks and enjoy being assessed. Most sports people fall into this group.
Need to Avoid Failure (NAF)
These people tend to avoid challenges because they do not want to risk failing. They are slow workers who avoid responsibility, are easily dissuaded from taking part and do not like being assessed.
Within those who compete in sports, there are those who are ego oriented and those who are task oriented.
Ego oriented - measure their success on beating others and being the 'top' competitor
Task oriented - Measure their success by their own achievements such as running a p.b.
The Canadian psychologist Albert Bandura identified a specific form of confidence, known as self-efficacy. This is not an overall self-confidence but varies within each situation we find ourselves in. Most people will choose to participate in sports at which they have a high self-efficacy, or belief in their ability at the task in hand.
Self-efficacy is affected by four factors:
Performance accomplishments - Past achievements in the activity encourage a feeling of self-efficacy Vicarious experiences - Seeing someone else, who you believe to be of the same or lower standard to yourself, complete the task well provides confidence that you too can achieve Verbal persuasion - Encouragement and positive words from those close to you can instill a sense of confidence Emotional arousal -...