Sport Management Research Paper

Topics: American football, National Football League, Roger Goodell Pages: 16 (4482 words) Published: March 13, 2013
Football Referees Affecting the Outcome of the Game

Joseph Bresse
Sport Seminar
Dr. Liptrap


This study focuses on finding if the training of football referees can affect the final outcome of a game. I researched types of training referees do to become certified, and also how they maintain. Home field advantage was also researched. Data was collected by polling 100 Division III football players in the Northeast, using a ten question survey.

Table of Contents

Research Questionpg 4

Literature Reviewpg 4-10

Definitionspg 11-14

Research Methodologypg 14

Resultspg 15-25

Conclusionpg 25-26

Referencespg 27-28

Appendixespg 29-30

Research Question
Does the training of the referees affect the final outcome of a football game?

Literature Review

Big Ten Faces Further Review
According to USA Today, The Big Ten faces further review, with a new experimental replay system. They allow technical advisers to sit in an audio visual room and watch all Big Ten games, and can overturn a bad call and take notes on good or controversial calls. David Parry, who is the leagues supervisor of football officials of fifteen years, and the coordinator of NCAA football supervisors, is one the men who do this job every week. If he hears an incorrect call or explanation, he can call the officials at the game and correct them. He can not overrule a call made off of instant replay, but he can be a witness to the process. (Moran, 2011) Packers Coach Talks to Referee Who Made Disputed Call

Green Bay head coach Mike McCarthy decided to call the referee who made the infamous blown call of the replacement referee era, Wayne Elliot. Elliot made the call of Touchdown, although it looked like Green Bay’s M.D. Jennings had intercepted the ball. McCarthy called saying he thought it was the right thing to do. Although he may not have agreed with the call made on the field, he decided to call the referee to see how he was dealing with all of the attention that had been brought about with it, and the phone calls he had been receiving about it. (The Associated Press, 2012)

If Football Referees Made Accreditation Calls: A Modest Proposal Robert Appleson, the associate director of the Higher Learning Commission of the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools, compares the accreditation of schools to accreditation of referees and the calls they make. He explains that if they calls were accredited, the call would be signaled more clearly and then fans would have an easier understanding of what is being called. (Appleson, 2004). The Eyes Have It

As in any sport, training is necessary to perform at your best. For referees, they need to be in good shape to keep up with the constant action and movement on the field. Well now referees are beginning to train their eyes to make more accurate calls, and help improve eyesight in the long run. There have been recent studies in ways to train their eyes with various exercises to help focus and reaction time. Referees usually have good eyesight to start, or else they would have inconsistent calls. They usually work with younger athletes, around the age of 20-22 but the decided to try the training on a 40 year old, and the results were good for the age difference. (Simon, 2010). Athletes’ perception of the home advantage:

An investigation of perceived causal factors
Home field advantage plays a huge part in the outcome of a game, hence the name home field “advantage”. Current research states that home team wins 60.4% of the time. It is effected mainly by the fans, atmosphere, and if it is a regular season game or playoff game. Referees play a big part in this too. The home team traditionally gets more calls in their favor, and...
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