Chapters 8-14 learning objectives
Clear organization is vital to speechmaking. Listeners demand coherence. They get only one chance to grasp a speaker's ideas, and they have little patience for speakers who ramble aimlessly from one idea to another. A well-organized speech will enhance the credibility and make it easier for the audience to understand the message.
The tips discussed for preparing main points are:
Keep main points separate.
Try to use the same wording for main points.
Balance the amount of time devoted to main points.
The four major types of speech connectives are transitions, internal previews, internal summaries, and signposts. Using them effectively will make the speeches more unified and coherent.
The four objectives of a speech introduction are:
Get the attention and interest of the audience.
Reveal the topic of the speech.
Establish credibility and goodwill.
Preview the body of the speech.
The seven major methods discussed in the textbook for gaining attention and interest in a speech introduction are:
Relate the topic to the audience.
State the importance of the topic.
Startle the audience.
Arouse the curiosity of the audience.
Question the audience.
Begin with a quotation.
Tell a story.
The two major functions of a speech conclusion are:
Signal the end of the speech.
Reinforce the central idea
Four ways to reinforce the central idea in a speech conclusion are:
Summarize the speech.
End with a quotation.
Make a dramatic statement.
Refer to the introduction.
Outlines are essential to effective speeches. By outlining, we make sure that related ideas are together, that our thoughts flow from one to another, and that the structure of our speech is coherent. WE will probably use two kinds of outlines for our speechesthe detailed preparation outline and the brief speaking outline. 2.
The differences between a preparation outline and a speaking outline.
A detailed outline developed during the process of speech preparation that includes the title, specific purpose, central idea, introduction, main points, sub points, connectives, conclusion, and bibliography of a speech.
A brief outline used to jog a speaker's memory during the presentation of a speech.
The differences between denotative and connotative meaning.
The meaning suggested by the associations or emotions triggered by a word or phrase.
The literal or dictionary meaning of a word or phrase.
The importance of using language accurately in public speeches.
Using language accurately is as vital to a speaker as using numbers accurately is to an accountant. Never use a word unless we are sure of its meaning. If we are not sure, we cab look up the word in a dictionary. As we prepare our speeches, we can ask ourselves constantly, "What do I really want to say? What do I really mean?" Choose words that are precise and accurate 3.
Three methods public speakers can use to help ensure that their language will be clear to listeners:
Using language clearly allows listeners to grasp our meaning immediately. We can ensure this by using words that are known to the average person and require no specialized background; by choosing concrete words in preference to more abstract ones; and by eliminating verbal clutter. 4.
How public speakers can use imagery and rhythm to help bring their ideas to life.
Using language vividly helps bring the speech to life. One way to make the language more vivid is through imagery, or the creation of word pictures. Imagery can be developing by using concrete language, simile, and metaphor. Simile is an explicit comparison between things that are essentially different yet have something in common; it always contains the words "like"...
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