Moving towards inclusive education
INTELLECTUALLY GIFTED AND CHALLED STUDENTS
An Intelligence Quotient, usually referred to as IQ, is a numerical score arrived at through testing. A student can have a Low, Average or High IQ. Intelligence is an inherited trait which, if low may make learning difficult unless facilitated by a highly skilled teacher. Additionally, a pupil who has inherited a high intelligence can be badly affected by bad teaching methods and enhanced through skilled teaching. A student with a Low IQ cannot change what he/she brings to the learning situation and are very likely to have parents who cannot help them. Hence, teachers can change what they bring to the learning situation since they have responsibility for pupils’ learning.
Down’s Syndrome formally called Mongolism due to the similar appearance of the people of Mongolia, in some areas is said to be the most common form of intellectual slowness or retardation. Children with Down’s Syndrome are slower than others to learn to use their bodies and mind but they can learn. Specific physical signs and problems can help us identify Down’s Syndrome as early as birth by way of a test, which can also determine if the child is going to be born with Down’s Syndrome. Down’s Syndrome is caused genetically by an extra chromosome and leads to:
* Low intellect leading to slow learning
* Possible hearing and/ or visual problem
* Extra coughs and colds due to a defective immunw system * Possible thyroid disease causing over – weight and general debility * 40% - 50% have heart problems
REMEDIATION TECNIQUES FOR TEACHERS
* Always maintain visual contact when talking to the child so he/she can watch your face and mouth. * Be patient when the child is trying to say something as it may not be easy for them * Encourage the child to talk as much as possible since practice makes it perfect. * Teach the child to keep his tongue in his mouth since this can help with appearance , self-esteem plus it reduces breathing and associated problems. * Remember the child will learn and develop like other students but at a slower and lower rate. * Use of structured signing systems can be useful for the young child to learn initial communication so that a two-way relationship can be built with the child. * Help the parents by drawing up a clear and simple list of ways that can help their child to develop: * Gross motor skills
* Fine manipulation skills
* Cognitive development
* Self help such as washing, dressing etc
Additionally, parents need to socialise the child by taking them out frequently, regular stretching exercises, painting, cutting and allow the child to perform small household chores as well as make as many opportunities as possible for their child to play with other children.
STUDENTS WITH LEARNING PROBLEMS
Learning problems in general
Dyslexia is not a disease. It is a learning disability characterised by problems with reading, spelling, writing, speaking or listening. It is a condition in which a person’s brain learns in a different way from that of other people. The brain of a person with dyslexia is structured differently from a typical brain causing such children to use different parts of the brain when reading. Persons with dyslexia have a larger right- hemisphere in their brain than the non-dyslexic. It is the right hand side of the brain that controls artistic, athletic and mechanical skills therefore dyslexic people are often good at art, music and problem solving. Dyslexia affects more boys than girls and the disability occurs in people of all ages, races and income level. The pupil with mild dyslexia is often termed a ‘hidden dyslexic’. This is because the teacher cannot readily spot the difficulties such a pupil is having. These pupils often ‘slip through the net’ especially...