Song dynasty and its significance in Chinese History
In this article, I would like to introduce the "Culture History" of Song dynasty. I will mainly talk about "Literature", which will be divided into 4 parts that are: 1)Poetry; 2)Prose; 3) Ci(詞); and 4)History. After introducing the Literature, I would like to explain Song dynasty's significance in Chinese History.
In Zhen Zong period, Xi Kun Ti became popular among the high officials. The representative of the Xi Kun Ti were Yang Yi, Liu-yun, Qian Wei-yan and the like. Besides Xi Kun Ti, there were some poets with special style in early-Song period. They were called "Late Tang group". For instance, Wei-ye, Lin Bu, Kou Zhun and the like were all the representatives of "Late Tang group". Then in the Ren Zong period, Ouyang Xiu had proceeded "Classical Prose Movement" and created created a flow of poetry new to each other model, with the help of Mei Yao-chen and Su Shun-qin, also reference by Han Yu. In the period of Shen Zong, Wang An-shi was active on creating political poem. He did write poem about politics, in the expression of a neat style while incorporating the ancient poems poetry-Story. Another wonderful poet must be introduced is Su Shi. He created a lot of marvelous poems and taught many students, For instance, all of Huang Ting-jian, Zhang Lei, Chao Bu-zhi and Qin-guan were students of Su Shi. Especially Huang had the greatest impact on posterity-statement gave birth to a stream called "Jiang Xi Shi Pai" after. Then, to represent the sadness of the lose of North China and the lather of being oppressed in Gangnam were Chen Yu-yi, Ceng Ji and Lu Ben-zhong. Many poems of them had mentioned the sadness of losing kingdom and reflected the age. Among three, Chen Yu-yi, who respected Du-fu very much, had the most similar style with Du-fu that always criticized the problems of the country in his poems. Entering into the reign of Xiao Zong, poetry celebrated the heyday again as Southern Song Dynasty gained a certain extent of stability. The representatives of this period were Fan cheng-da, Yang wan-li and the best poet in Southern Song－Lu You. Lu You had been the top in Ke Ju, but because of Qin Xun, who was the grandson of Qin Gui, he could only be No.2. Until he died when he was 86, he had created 9000 poems which is a surprising amount. Followed by a period of peace since the end of the Xiao Zong period, the number of people read poems had increased significantly. "Yong Jia Si Ling" was the representative of this period and they were called "Jiang Hu Pai". "Yong Jia Si Ling" included Xu Zhao, Xu Ji, Weng Jaun and Zhao Shi-xiu. At the Late-Southern Song period, Mongolia's attack was intensifying day by day. And Wen Tian-xiang was the one who could mostly describe the sadness and lather of worrying the dynasty. "Song of sanity" was famous that giving a deep impression on posterity patriot. After the fall of the Southern Song dynasty, people who presented themselves, as "remnants of the Song people" even became the era of the original weave. They reminisced about the poem in the song of past days. The representatives in this period were Wang Yuan-liang, Xie Ao and Zheng Si-xiao.
After introducing the poetry, I would like to introduce prose in Song dynasty. In the early Song, "Pian Wen" was the major form of poetry. However, Liu Kai, Wan Yu-cheng, Shi Jie and Fan Zhong-yan had claimed a return to the simple and spartan style that was used in Qin Han dynasty. Especially the "Tai Xue Ti" created by Shi Jie was even used as the form for exam. However, "Tai Xue Ti" was actually affected by Han Yu, who was using a form that was arduous to understand. In 1057, when Ouyang Xiu served as the examiner, he let some people like Su Zhe and Ceng Gong passed but failed the answer of "Tai Xue Ti". As a result, the form of Ouyang Xiu and other people who had same thinking with him like Su Xin, Su Zhe, Su Shi, Wang An-shi and Ceng Gong, that means "Tang Song Ba Da...
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