Solution to Ignou Papers

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  • Topic: Non-state actor, Sociocultural evolution, Cotonou Agreement
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Foundation Course in Humanities and Social Sciences
Tutor Marked Assignment (TMA)
Course Code: BSHF-101
Assignment Code: BSHF-101/AST/TMA/2013
Total Marks: 100

A. Descriptive Category Questions (DCQ) answer any two in 500 words each: 1. Analyze the evolution of man as a tool making animal. 20
Solution: As said above answer only 2 below are the solved answer

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2. Does the post – Industrial society differ from the Industrial society? Explain 20 Solution: Yes the Post – Industrial society is differing from the Industrial society because of the following reason:

* Limited production (i.e. artisanship vs. mass production)
* Primarily an agricultural economy
* Limited division of labor. In pre-industrial societies, production was relatively simple and the number of specialized crafts was limited. * Limited variation of social classes
* Parochialism—Social theories hold that communications were limited between human communities in pre-industrial societies. Few had the opportunity to see or hear beyond their own village. In contrast, industrial societies grew with the help of faster means of communication, having more information at hand about the world, allowing knowledge transfer and cultural diffusion between them. * Pre-industrial societies developed largely in rural communities. Capitalism developed largely in urban areas. 1. Within the economy, there is a transition from goods production to the provision of services. Production of such goods as clothing and steel declines and services such as selling hamburgers and offering advice on investments increase. Although services predominate in a wide range of sectors, health, education, research, and government services are the most decisive for a post-industrial society. 2. The importance of blue-collar, manual work (e.g., assembly line workers) declines and professional (e.g. lawyers, doctors, and engineers) and technical work (e.g. computer programmers) come to predominate. Of special importance is the rise of scientists (e.g., specialized engineers, such as genetic or electric). Many mining towns and similar settlements face large scale unemployment as a result of the increasing importance of both theoretical knowledge with a simultaneous decline in manufacturing and increasing importance of environmentalism. Many industrial towns residents are on benefits, such as the dole. 3. Instead of practical know-how, theoretical knowledge is increasingly essential in a post-industrial society. Such knowledge is seen as the basic source of innovation (e.g., the knowledge created by those scientists involved in the Human Genome Project is leading to new ways of treating many diseases). Advances in knowledge also lead to the need for other innovations such as ways of dealing with ethical questions raised by advances in cloning technology. All of this involved an emphasis on theoretical rather than empirical knowledge and on the codification of knowledge. The exponential growth of theoretical and codified knowledge, in all its varieties, is central to emergence of the post-industrial society. 4. Post-industrial society seeks to assess the impacts of the new technologies and, where necessary, to exercise control over them. The hope is, for example, to better monitor things like nuclear power plants and to improve them so that accidents like that at Three-Mile Island or Chernobyl can be prevented in the future. The goal is a surer and more secure technological world. The doctrine of the precautionary principle is sometimes used in preventing the worst aspects of new technologies, such as cloning and genetic engineering, when there is no evidence of their negative impact. 5. To handle such assessment and control, and more generally the sheer complexity of post-industrial society, new intellectual technologies are developed and implemented. They include cybernetics, Game theory and Information theory. 6. A...
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