Imperialism Study Guide

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World History II Honors Study Guide: Unit 8 Imperialism
Imperialism Causes
1.) Industrial Revolution- Markets and Resources
2.) Geopolitics- National Security and control resources and trade 3.) Nationalism- Military and Prestige
4.) Missionary causes- “white man’s burden” and popular support

The Industrial Revolution
1) The Start of the Industrial Revolution
a) Advances in agriculture: improved methods of farming, fertilizers b) Enclosure movement: large land owners fenced in their lands in an attempt to increase profits (without fences, peasants could use these lands); resulted in many peasants without lands; also resulted in increased profits for landowners = capital c) Migration of landless peasants to the cities = surplus of laborers d) Technological inventions: steam engine, transportation (trains), increase speed in communication e) Textile industry: first industry to “industrialize” = production moves out of the home into factories 2) Changes in Society

a) Family: members separated as work moved out of the home into factories b) New emphasis on time: starting and finishing hours for work; deliveries of goods c) Women: married women lost jobs because work was away from the home; young, unmarried women gained job opportunities d) Social Status: determined increasingly by wealth (as opposed to by ownership of land and aristocratic titles) e) City conditions: overcrowded, unsanitary, unruly

f) After 1850:
i) New labor laws that shortened work day, increased wages ii) Leisure time: time away from work to engage in “fun” 1) Sports, movies, amusement centers
iii) New jobs in middle management, secretarial staff (especially for unmarried women) iv) Mass production made goods less expensive, therefore available to more people, therefore increasing the quality of life v) New careers in advertising

3) Early Spread of Industry
a) Western Europe (France, Germany) followed Great Britain b) United States
c) Accompanied by construction of railroads
d) End of 19th century: Russia, Japan, Egypt

|Russia |Japan |Egypt | |1861: emancipation of serfs = surplus of |1854: US sends envoy to Japan to open it up to trade |Muhammad Ali: leader that fostered| |laborers |1868: Meiji Restoration brings new government favorable to |industrialization | |Construction of Railroads, funded by |Westernization/Modernization |Motivation: diminish dependency on| |government to encourage industry |Samurai travel the world to observe, bring back information |Ottomans | |Factories in major cities (Moscow, St. |Rapid industrialization upon their return |Focus on modernization of the | |Petersburg) |Banks fostered investments |military | |Improved banking system to help give |Taxes bring revenues to the government to spend on railroads, factories |Capital raised by cotton, wheat | |loans and foster investment |Zaibatsu: business class (like the robber barons of the US) |growers | |High tariffs to protect industry |Lack of resources: needed to trade; led to wars with China and Russia for |High tariffs to protect industry | |20th century: 4th in world in steel |resources in Manchuria |Industrialization lagged because | |production |1910: Japan annexes Korea...
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