Solar Power

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Background
* Three solar energy
* Solar electric (太阳电能): convert the sun’s energy into electricity * Solar thermal (太阳热能): used the sun for heating or cooling * Concentrating solar: mixed both above as it used small optical mirrors to collect solar energy and convert the sunlight to heat. The heat was then applied to a liquid and gas to turn a turbine, thereby creating electricity

* Grid-tied
* Solar electric system that were connected to an electricity utility grid( electricity utility grid were heavily regulated by government bodies and were often separate from electricity providers * Either “ ground mount” or “ rooftop”: in a field or desert area * Range from 1kW to 10 kW on residential home or 10 kW to 5 mW on commercial buildings

* Off- grid
* Independent of the main electricity grid
* A solution to providing power in isolated rural areas

* Silicon is the main semiconductor material for PV
* Low grade silicon such as 5N (UMG-si) silicon is cheaper than 6N silicon * Canadian Solar has commercialized products with the lower grades for silicon * UMG-si is a bi product of the aluminum smelting business * Monocrystalline is efficiency that polycrystalline , but with higher cost of productions * Thin-film have no crystalline silicon , but rather a painted or printed semi-conductor; however, three of six materials had not been commercial viable * Life cycle

目前可能介于两个阶段之中, 理由自己决定与判断,言之有理就行 Growth (high growth , low rivalry and low barrier)
Shake-out (increasing rivalry, slower growth)

External Environmental Appraisal ( PV industry)
* Macro environmental appraisal:
* PESTEL analysis for PV industry
1. Political:
Opportunity
1) : an increasing number of government incentive programs for renewable energy 2) Feed-in tariff, offering subsidies
Threat:
1) Largely hinged on government initiatives and renewable support schemes. E.g. Spanish place a cap on annual installations, the demand dropped substantially 2) Heavily installation cause public backlash against government due to the high costs 2. Economic

Opportunity
1) The cost of solar will be competitive with non- renewable sources within 3-5 years
2) Encouraging on the small-scale project for residential homes e.g. Ontario’s FIT
3) Encouraging on domestic contents
threat
1) the credit crunch, global economic downturn
2) fluctuating price of raw-material silicon
3) fluctuating solar demand
3. Social
Opportunity
1) a growing awareness of the malaise of non renewable energy 4. Technological
opportunity
1) relatively nascent and rapidly growing solar PV industry
2) technological breakthroughs of solar PV

* Industry and competitive environmental appraisal:
* Five forces analysis
1) The bargaining power of Suppliers:(high) PV manufacturers have two main suppliers, there are raw material suppliers and specialized equipment manufactures. As it mentioned in the case, the price of silicon is fluctuates. The cost of raw material increased because of the temporary silicon shortage around mid-2008, as a result, it would lead PV manufacturers to decrease the cost for crystalline PV modules. However, by mid-2009, that price had fallen. And some silicon maker will adapt their business models to start producing modules. For specialized equipment manufactures, such as furnaces, sawing machines, printing machines and laminators. 2) The bargaining power of Buyers: (high) several potential customers, For the consumer electronics, automotive and industrial product companies, they integrated solar cells into their products for resale. For example, the solar charger for use in automobiles. For grid- tied applications, they are either “ ground mount” or “ rooftop”--- ground mount applications were typically in a field or desert area and were either solar PV or concentrating...
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