SOIL EROSION AND CONSERVATION
Erosion is the removal of soil particles by the motion of wind or water. Soil erosion is one of the major concerns of modern agriculture throughout the world.
The fallowing contributes to soil erosion:
Misuse of land,
Mismanagement of arable land,
Indiscriminate felling of trees,
Poor soil and water management
Erosion causes or Results in a:
Decline in soil fertility,
Thus it affects the productivity of the land,
This decreases the production of food, feed, fiber, and fuel. This adversely affects the socio-economic conditions of the state. Erosion causes floods,
Silting up of water reservoirs,
Disruption of communication systems,
Disturbance of the socio-economic setup of the farming community.
Erosion is of Two Types.
1. Normal or Geological Erosion:
Erosion effects are not visible on the land surface
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nor are soil productivity adversely affected. In quantitative terms, the amount of soil lost through erosion is equal to the amount of soil formed. 2. Accelerated Erosion:
The effects of erosion are visible on the ground surface and the rate of soil loss is greater than the rate of soil formation.
Magnitude of the problem in Pakistan:
According to an estimate;
Wind and water erosion affect over 76% of the country’s total area. Over 36% is being eroded by water and 40% by wind.
Every year approximately one billion tonnes of soil is being lost, silting up precious dams and dumped into the Arabian Sea. Most erosion takes place during the summer because about 60-45% of the precipitation falls in that season in the form of heavy downpours.
Erosion is mainly caused by two agencies: Wind and Water.
Erosion caused by wind is called -wind erosion
And that caused by water is...