Sociology Test #2 Outline
More concepts related to culture:
high culture = culture of the wealthy
pop culture = culture of the common people
trend = something in the culture that endures over time
fad = relatively short-lived element of the culture
Socialization and related concepts
Primary socialization = earliest occurring socialization
anticipatory socialization = children?s play, trying on roles as they play Professional socialization = learning what is expected in a professional setting Gender socialization = learning what is expected of males and females.
Total institution has its own version of each of the social institutions. We said that prisons and military are examples
De-socialization = breaking down what was learned previously re-socialization = learning what is need in new circumstances these occur in a total institution, because total institutions have ways of doing things that differ from the outside world.
Mead?s ideas on formation of self:
The self is composed of 2 parts the I and the me.
I = the individual part of self
Me = the social part of self
Self-concept = sum total of who an individual believes herself or himself to be Self-esteem = evaluation of self. It can and does fluctuate for most people
Both self- concept and self- esteem are formed through the process of social interaction
Looking-glass self (Charles H. Cooley) and Generalized other (George H. Mead) are related concepts. Looking-glass self is the micro level concept and generalized other is the macro level concept. Looking-glass self = an individual?s perception of how others see him or her. Occurs in face to face interaction, so micro level Generalized other = an individual seeing himself or herself through the eyes of society (norms)
Id, ego, superego are Freud?s version of parts of the self. He also believed that socialization is the key to formation of self. Id = instinct
Ego = mediator
Superego = conscience
Primary group members are significant others. They may be parents, other family members, close friends. They are usually informal control agents in our lives.
Secondary group is made up of more casual relationships. They are less intense and less important than those of our primary group.
extended = more than one generation, includes mom, dad, children, grandparents, grandchildren, aunts, uncles, cousins, etc.
nuclear =mom, dad and children
single-parent = only one parent, either mom or dad who lives with and cares fro children
blended = man and woman who come together with children from previous relationships. They may also have children together.
People who share the same characteristic
Very often based on age. Teens are a peer group.
Can also be based on other things, for example profession. Doctors are a peer group.
Strongest in teen years
Roles = parts we play in life
role-taking = mentally trying on a role. For example, if I were a doctor, how would I interact with patients?
Role-taking can also mean trying to see a situation through the eyes of persons who play a particular role. For example, why does my teacher seem so grumpy when the class is a little bit noisy? How does our noise affect him and his ability to teach? What would I do in a similar situation?
role-identity = the way you see yourself in a role that you have. I am a good parent. I am an excellent student. I am a responsible friend.
role conflict = 2 or more roles pull you in different direction. Example, my children need help with their homework, but I have to stay late at work.
role strain = only one role is involved. Example, a student is under lots of stress because he. She has 3 tests on the same day.
role exits = leaving a role that you have had for a while. Retirement and graduations are examples. People sometimes experience depression when they leave a role.
Status = ranking
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