Socio-Economics Problems in India

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Socio-economic issues in India
Overpopulation
India suffers from the problem of overpopulation. The population of india is very high- 345 million approx. [1][2][3] Though India ranks second in population, it ranks 33 in terms of population density below countries such as The Netherlands, South Korea and Japan. There is a lot of problems which arise due to such a large population. Problems such as unemployment , excessive pressure on environment, social infrastructure and the most important food availability.To cure this problem, Indira Gandhi, Prime Minister of India, had implemented a forced sterilization programme in the early 1970s but failed. Officially, men with two children or more had to submit to sterilization, but many unmarried young men, political opponents and ignorant, poor men were also believed to have been sterilized. This program is still remembered and criticized in India, and is blamed for creating a wrong public aversion to family planning, which hampered Government programmes for decades.[4]

Economic issues
1)Poverty
One-third of India's population (roughly equivalent to the entire population of the United States) lives below the poverty line and India is home to one-third of the world's poor people. Though the middle class has gained from recent positive economic developments, India suffers from substantial poverty. According to the new World Bank's estimates on poverty based on 2005 data, India has 456 million people, 41.6% of its population, living below the new international poverty line of $1.25 (PPP) per day. The World Bank further estimates that 33% of the global poor now reside in India. Moreover, India also has 828 million people, or 75.6% of the population living below $2 a day, compared to 72.2% for Sub-Saharan Africa.[5][6][7][8] Wealth distribution in India is fairly uneven, with the top 10% of income groups earning 33% of the income.[9] Despite significant economic progress, 1/4 of the nation's population earns less than the government-specified poverty threshold of $0.40/day. Official figures estimate that 27.5%[10] of Indians lived below the national poverty line in 2004–2005.[11] A 2007 report by the state-run National Commission for Enterprises in the Unorganised Sector (NCEUS) found that 25% of Indians, or 236 million people, lived on less than 20 rupees per day[12] with most working in "informal labour sector with no job or social security, living in abject poverty. 2)Sanitation

Lack of proper sanitation is a major concern for India. Statistics conducted by UNICEF have shown that only 31% of India’s population is using improved sanitation facilities as of 2008.[14] It is estimated that one in every ten deaths in India is linked to poor sanitation and hygiene. Diarrhoea is the single largest killer and accounts for one in every twenty deaths.[14] Around 450,000 deaths were linked to diarrhoea alone in 2006, of which 88% were deaths of children below five.[14] Studies by UNICEF have also shown that diseases resulting from poor sanitation affects children in their cognitive development.[15] Without proper sanitation facilities in India, people defecate in the open or rivers. One gram of faeces could potentially contain 10 million viruses, one million bacteria, 1000 parasite cysts and 100 worm eggs.[16] The Ganges river in India has a stunning 1.1 million litres of raw sewage being disposed into it every minute.[16] The high level of contamination of the river by human waste allow diseases like cholera to spread easily, resulting in many deaths, especially among children who are more susceptible to such viruses.[17] A lack of adequate sanitation also leads to significant economic losses for the country. A Water and sanitation Program (WSP) study The Economic Impacts of Inadequate Sanitation in India (2010) showed that inadequate sanitation caused India considerable economic losses, equivalent to 6.4 per cent of India’s GDP in 2006 at US$53.8 billion (Rs.2.4 trillion).[18] In...
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