Poverty

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poverty

Poverty is the state of one who lacks a certain amount of material possessions or money.[1] Absolute poverty or destitution refers to the deprivation of basic human needs, which commonly includes food, water, sanitation, clothing, shelter, health care and education. Relative poverty is defined contextually as economic inequality in the location or society in which people live.[2][3] For much of history, poverty was considered largely unavoidable as traditional modes of production were insufficient to give an entire population a comfortable standard of living.[1][4] After the industrial revolution, mass production in factories made wealth increasingly more inexpensive and accessible. Of more importance is the modernization of agriculture, such as fertilizers, in order to provide enough yield to feed the population.[5] The supply of basic needs can be restricted by constraints on government services such as corruption, tax avoidance, debt and loan conditionalities and by the brain drain of health care and educational professionals. Strategies of increasing income to make basic needs more affordable typically include welfare, economic freedoms, and providing financial services. Poverty reduction is a major goal and issue for many international organizations such as the United Nations and the World Bank. The World Bank estimated 1.29 billion people were living in absolute poverty in 2008. Of these, about 400 million people in absolute poverty lived in India and 173 million people in China. In USA 1 in 5 children lives in poverty.[6] In terms of percentage of regional populations, sub-Saharan Africa at 47% had the highest incidence rate of absolute poverty in 2008. Between 1990 and 2010, about 663 million people moved above the absolute poverty level. Still, extreme poverty is a global challenge; it is observed in all parts of the world, including the developed economies.[7][8] Contents [hide]

1 Etymology
2 Measuring poverty
2.1 Definitions
2.2 Absolute poverty
2.3 Relative poverty
2.4 Other aspects
3 Characteristics
3.1 Health
3.2 Hunger
3.3 Education
3.4 Housing and utilities
3.5 Violence
4 Poverty reduction
4.1 Increasing the supply of basic needs
4.1.1 Food and other goods
4.1.2 Health care and education
4.1.3 Removing constraints on government services
4.1.4 Reversing brain drain
4.1.5 Controlling overpopulation
4.2 Increasing personal income
4.2.1 Income grants
4.2.2 Economic freedoms
4.2.3 Financial services
4.2.4 Cultural factors to productivity
5 Voluntary poverty
6 See also
6.1 Nations
6.2 Theology
6.3 Organizations and campaigns
6.4 In documentary photography and film
7 References
8 Further reading
9 External links
Etymology [edit]

The word poverty comes from old French poverté (Modern French: pauvreté), from Latin paupertās, from pauper (poor).[9] The English word "poverty" via Anglo-Norman povert.[citation needed] There are several definitions of poverty depending on the context of the situation in is placed in and the views of the person giving the definition. Measuring poverty [edit]

See also: List of countries by percentage of population living in poverty and Poverty threshold Definitions [edit]

Percentage of population living on less than $1.25 per day, 2009.

Percentage of population suffering from hunger, World Food Programme, 2008

Life expectancy, 2008.

The Human Development Index, 2006

The Gini coefficient, a measure of income inequality, 2009.
United Nations: Fundamentally, poverty is a denial of choices and opportunities, a violation of human dignity. It means lack of basic capacity to participate effectively in society. It means not having enough to feed and clothe a family, not having a school or clinic to go to, not having the land on which to grow one’s food or a job to earn one’s living, not having access to credit. It means insecurity, powerlessness and exclusion of individuals, households and communities. It means...
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