2. Social inequality is a necessary evil of capitalist society”. Please comment with the reference of the sociology perspectives being discussed in the lecture and textbook.
Social inequality exists in every society, no matter it is capitalist society or communist society. Yet, referring from three of the sociology perspectives, it proves that social inequality is a necessary evil of capitalist society. Capitalism affects the whole situation of different countries on different aspects, examples are economic, gender, education. I totally agree with the point of social inequality is a necessary evil in capitalist countries. In this essay, I am going to focus on the social inequality in Hong Kong in the past decades, discuss why social inequality is a necessary evil and what leads to social inequality with the reference of the sociology perspectives. To start with this essay, first I would like to define what social inequality and capitalism are. There are various types of social inequality, aging discrimination, cruelty to animals, racial, gender inequality, etc. According to Hradil, he defined social inequality as to fulfill the general accepted of life goal faced in unequal opportunities, it generally refers to the uneven distribution of material wealth in a society. Because of the general accepted of life goal, which desires of people, not only one, therefore the structure of social inequality is very complicated. To analyze this complicated structure of social inequality, Hradil suggested first is to find out what is the dimension of unequal living condition with the similar aspect of different life goal, take “rich” as an example of life goal, but in fact this is equal to “money”, money is the unfair dimension of chasing richness. After having the concept of life goal and the similar aspect of unequal living conditions, we can step forward to identify the social positions. Different unequal living conditions have different importances to different social positions. Capitalism means a system of economic enterprise based on the market exchange. “Capital” refers to any assets, which are money, property, machines, which can be used to produce commodities for sale or invested in a market with the hope of achieving a profit. Nearly all industrial societies today are capitalist in orientation, which refer to their economic systems are based on free enterprise and on economic competition. In past few decades, Hong Kong has experienced a change in its economic structure. Tertiary production contributes to the most development of the economy. Hong Kong has undergone primary production and secondary production, and now Hong Kong is mainly tertiary production which provides services. Tertiary production becomes more and more important. Hong Kong is one of the world’s leading international financial centres. As Hong Kong is the knowledge-based society, if someone who did not receive higher level of education, he or she will be eliminated. There must be someone who is richer and someone poorer. In general, society defines richer people has a higher social status and position while the poorer people has a lower one. This leads to the social stratification and social class. Social Stratification means in human society, different society member or group differ from having different society resources, and slowly formed higher or lower level or class. Like gender inequality (giddens), it is a significant form of gender inequality, as gender is a critical factor in structuring the types of opportunities and life chances faced by individuals and groups, and strongly influences the roles they play within social institutions from the household to the state. Men’s roles are generally more highly valued and rewarded than women’s roles. In functionalist approaches, social stratification is necessary to a certain extent, it ensures some important positions bear by proper people. Important or not depends on the needs of whole...
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