Social Change and Social Movements

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SOCIAL CHANGE AND SOCIAL MOVEMENTS
Alejo-Alvarez-ArbonedaMalabad-Masesar-Sese-Villar

What is CHANGE?
• It is an enduring historical force

with noticeable variations through time. • It may be hardly discernable or easily observable; it may be constructive or destructive. • It occurs EVERYWHERE and EVERYTIME.

What is CHANGE?
• It is intertwined with established

patterns, particularly the socialization process.
Socialization makes for conformity and predictability of behavior; change for disruption of stable patterns and fostering of new modes of thinking and action.

• It has been regarded in many ways – as a means, process, and end, or even a social movement.

What is CHANGE?
• It involves a comparison of the

past and the present in the hope for improvement, stability, or security in the future. • It is associated with progress which is only one of its aspects.

Examples
• The changed norms of the landlord tenant

relationship because of land reform • The significance of learning and adopting managerial skills in farming • The altered Filipino outlook and behavior toward foreigners and foreign things • Changes in social mobility and social stratification among Filipinos because of the acceptance and adoption of western value and behavior patterns

SOCIAL Change
• Variations or modifications in the patterns of

social organization, of sub-groups within a society, or the entire society itself. • May be manifested in the fall or rise of groups, communities, or institutional structures and functions. • It can also be manifested in the changes in statuses and roles of members in the family, work setting, church, school, government, health and welfare, leisure, and other subsystems of the social organization.

LEVELS OF HUMAN ACTION AND CHANGE

• INDIVIDUAL PERSONALITY (First

Level) • INTERACTION AMONG INDIVIDUALS (Second Level) • GROUP OF SOCIAL SYSTEMS (Third Level) • CULTURAL SYSTEM (Fourth Level)

• Change is pervasive and is taking place in culture,

society, and personality. Changes in culture bring about changes in society and human beings; likewise, changes in society and human beings bring about the changes in culture. 1. The development of oral and written language and other means of communication 2. Modifications in technology 3. Shifts in economic principles 4. The historical evolution of religious ritual and dogma, educational philosophy and political ideology 5. Variations in musical styles and other art forms 6. Transitions in scientific theories 7. Alterations in the forms and rules of social interaction.

The Sources of Social Change
• Changes are also brought about by the

selective acceptance/addition or rejection/discarding of or the changed emphasis on existing elements. An element of culture is accepted, resisted or rejected not merely because it is fundamentally useful or useless but because of its relationship with the rest of the culture which may or may not assimilate it.

The Sources of Social Change
• Innovation/s (DISCOVERIES and INVENTIONS)

• Is any thought, behavior or thing that is new because it

is qualitatively different from existing forms. (Barnet). • It is the development or recognition of new elements or patterns (either material or non-material) in a culture. • It is always dependent upon a knowledge of existing culture, for it involves the reinterpretation or new combination of old culture traits or complexes, or the selection of elements from old patterns to create new patterns. • Innovation is itself a stimulus to further innovation.

Innovations can arise within the culture through DISCOVERY and INVENTION. • Gillin and Gillin (1948:126) refer to

DISCOVERY as the initial awareness of the existing but formerly unobserved relationships of elements, of nature to human life. They become the mainsprings of inventions which are later diffused. • Examples: • Discovery of fire, oil, of organisms and

substances, of...
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