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UNIT 6:

Social Issues and The Environment

6.1 FROM UNSUSTAINABLE TO SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 6.2 URBAN PROBLEMS RELATED TO ENERGY 6.3 WATER CONSERVATION, RAIN WATER HARVESTING, WATERSHED MANAGEMENT 6.3.1 Water conservation 6.3.2 Rain water harvesting 6.3.3 Watershed management 6.4 RESETTLEMENT AND REHABILITATION OF PEOPLE; ITS PROBLEMS AND CONCERNS. CASE STUDIES 6.5 ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS: ISSUES AND POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS 6.5.1 Resource consumption patterns and the need for their equitable utilisation 6.5.2 Equity – Disparity in the Northern and Southern countries 6.5.3 Urban – rural equity issues 6.5.4 The need for Gender Equity 6.5.5 Preserving resources for future generations 6.5.6 The rights of animals 6.5.7 The ethical basis of environment education and awareness 6.5.8 The conservation ethic and traditional value systems of India 6.6 CLIMATE CHANGE, GLOBAL WARMING, ACID RAIN, OZONE LAYER DEPLETION, NUCLEAR ACCIDENTS AND NUCLEAR HOLOCAUST. CASE STUDIES 6.6.1 Climate change 6.6.2 Global warming 6.6.3 Acid rain 6.6.4 Ozone layer depletion 6.6.5 Nuclear Accidents and Nuclear Holocaust Social Issues and The Environment

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6.7 WASTELAND RECLAMATION 6.8 CONSUMERISM AND WASTE PRODUCTS 6.9 ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION ACT 6.10 AIR (PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF POLLUTION) ACT 6.11 WATER (PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF POLLUTION) ACT 6.12 WILDLIFE PROTECTION ACT 6.13 FOREST CONSERVATION ACT 6.14 ISSUES INVOLVED IN ENFORCEMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL LEGISLATION 6.14.1Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) 6.14.2 Citizens actions and action groups 6.15 PUBLIC AWARENESS 6.15.1 Using an Environmental Calendar of Activities 6.15.2 What can I do?

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Environmental Studies for Undergraduate Courses

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6.1 FROM UNSUSTAINABLE TO SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Until two decades ago the world looked at economic status alone as a measure of human development. Thus countries that were economically well developed and where people were relatively richer were called advanced nations while the rest where poverty was widespread and were economically backward were called developing countries. Most countries of North America and Europe which had become industrialized at an earlier stage have become economically more advanced. They not only exploited their own natural resources rapidly but also used the natural resources of developing countries to grow even larger economies. Thus the way development progressed, the rich countries got richer while the poor nations got poorer. However, even the developed world has begun to realise that their lives were being seriously affected by the environmental consequences of development based on economic growth alone. This form of development did not add to the quality of life as the environmental conditions had begun to deteriorate. By the 1970s most development specialists began to appreciate the fact that economic growth alone could not bring about a better way of life for people unless environmental conditions were improved. Development strategies in which only economic considerations were used, had begun to suffer from serious environmental problems due to air and water pollution, waste management, deforestation and a variety of other ill effects that seriously affected peoples’ well being and health. There were also serious equity issues between the “haves and the have nots” in society, at the global and national levels. The disparity in the lifestyles between the rich and the poor was made worse by these unsustainable development strategies. Many decades ago, Mahatma Gandhi envisioned a reformed village community based on Social Issues and The Environment

sound environmental management. He stressed on the need for sanitation based on recycling human and animal manure and...
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