(B.Tech.Elctronics & Instrumentation )
Smart sensors represent the next evolutionary tools for studying the environment..The smart environment relies first and foremost on sensory data from the real world. Sensory data comes from smart sensors of different modalities in distributed locations. Smart sensor systems are capable of prediction, interpretation,communication and intelligent interaction with the environment & hence will leverage new fault management of devices and control for distributed resources. Tremendous advances in digital signal processing and laser capabilities in recent years have enabled many new sensor developments ,one of these being smart sensors. Fundamental research has already been carried out to develop smart sensors to monitor and control robotics, mobile vehicles, cooperative autonomous systems, mechatronics and bio-engineering systems. Emerging sensors and instrumentation technology can be exploited for enhanced research and operational capabilities. Such smart information technology manifests the potential for varied applications. It is envisioned that concepts of smart sensors and information technology can be transferred and applied to numerous system. The implementation of large networks of interconnected smart sensors can monitor and control our world. Better understanding of smart sensors perform satisfactorily in real-world conditions and can help improve efficiency and reliability.A sensor network consisting of a large number of smart sensors, enabling the collection, processing analysis and dissemination of valuable information gathered in a variety of environments is being implemented quickly .
integrating sensors and
Smart sensors are an extension of traditional sensors to those with advanced learning and adaptation capabilities. The system must also be re-configurable and perform the necessary data interpretation, fusion of data from multiple sensors and the validation of local and remotely collected data.These sensors therefore contain embedded processing functionality that provides the computational resources to perform complex sensing and actuating tasks along with high level applications. The functions of an smart sensor system can be described in terms of compensation, information processing, communications and integration. The combination of these respective elements allow for the development of these sensors that can operate in a multi-modal fashion as well conducting active autonomous sensing. Compensation is the ability of the system to detect and respond to changes in the network environment through self-diagnostic routines, self-calibration and adaptation. A smart sensor must be able to evaluate the validity of collected data, compare it with that obtained by other sensors and confirm the accuracy Information processing encompasses the data related processing that aims to enhance and interpret the collected data and maximize the efficiency of the system, through signal conditioning, data reduction, event detection and decision making. Communications component of sensor systems incorporates the standardized network protocol which serves to links the distributed sensors in a coherent manner, enabling efficient communications and fault tolerance. Integration in smart sensors involves the coupling of sensing and computation at the chip level. This can be implemented using micro electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), nano-technology and bio-technology. Validation of sensors is required to avoid the potential disastrous effects of the propagation of erroneous data. The incorporation of data validation into smart sensors increases the overall reliability of the system . Data fusion techniques are required in order combine information from multiple...