Altered states of consciousness
Sleeping is defined as: Altered state of consciousness meaning losing awareness, unresponsiveness to the surrounding environment. Normal people spend one third of their life-time sleeping. Sleeping has many functions such as: improving mental health and maintaining the body in its healthy state and avoid the damage of tissues.
Age and condition
| Sleep Needs
Newborns (0–2 months)
| 12 to 18 hours
Infants (3–11 months)
| 14 to 15 hours
Toddlers (1–3 years)
| 12 to 14 hours
Preschoolers (3–5 years)
| 11 to 13 hours
School-age children (5–10 years)
| 10 to 11 hours
Adolescents (10–17 years)
| 8.5 to 9.25 hours
Adults, including elderly
| 7 to 9 hours
| 8(+) hours
On the other hand, Sleep deprivation may leads to mood alternation, increased irritability, reduced motor skills or reduced immunity. Stages of sleep:
Stage 1: It is the stage of transition between wakefulness and sleep, relatively rapid, low amplitude brain waves, Non Rapid Eye Movement, 4-5 % of sleep time. Stage 2: Is deeper than stage 1, characterized by slower, more regular wave pattern, momentary interruptions of “sleep spindles”, Non Rapid Eye Movement, 45-55% of sleep time. Stage 3: Characterized by slow brain waves, greater peaks and valleys in wave pattern that that in stage 2, Non Rapid Eye Movement, 4-6 % of sleep time. Stage 4: The deepest stage of sleep and the sleeper has the least responsiveness to the outside stimulation, Non Rapid Eye Movement, 12-15 % of sleep time. Rapid Eye Movement Sleep: Consumes 20-25 % of adult’s sleep time, characterized by increasing heart rate, blood pressure and breathing rate, erections, eye movement and dreaming occurs in this stage. Dreams:
Successions of images, ideas, emotions, and sensations that occur involuntarily in the mind during the REM stage of sleeping. Freud: “Every dream will reveal itself as a psychological structure, full of significance, and one which may be assigned to a specific place in psychic activity of waking state”. 2- Drug cases:
Drugs change sensory perception and behavior. Psychoactive drugs are also called recreational drugs and they are classified into: Stimulants (increase the activity of the central nervous system), Sedatives (decrease the activity of the central nervous system), Narcotics or Opiates (relieve pain) (such as morphine and heroin which causes relaxation, euphoria and lethargy), and Hallucinogens (cause sensory and perceptual distortions).
It is a state of decreasing reaction to pain and focused attention. This state allows people to do things against their wills and it also improves their memory recall. But it is just a delusion. 4- Meditation:
It is a technique which promotes heightened sense of awareness, where the person focuses on a focal point, and controls his breathing. He is relaxed, has low blood pressure and may reach the sense of euphoria.
If you suffer from a problem in getting sleep, hard waking up or of being overly tired during the day, you are suffering from a sleep disorder. About 70 million Americans have troubles in sleeping.
Normal children sleep at least 9 hours, but if they suffer from a sleep disorder they may have negative performance in school or in social relationships. As for adults, sleep disorders are serious enough to interfere with normal physical, mental and emotional functioning. Polysomnography is a common test ordered by people who suffer from sleep disorders. It is a comprehensive recording of the bio physiological changes that occur during sleep. There are many types of sleep disorders, such as: Snoring, Insomnia, Bedwetting, Teeth grinding (Bruxism), Narcolepsy, Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorder, Sleep apnea, Sleep paralysis, hypersomnia (excess sleep), Sleepwalking and Sleep talking, Night mares and...
Please join StudyMode to read the full document