Motivation has been defined as impulsion to do something to satisfy a eyed. The stronger the need, the stronger the impulsion and stronger the motivation. Till the need is not satisfied the person remains in the state of pension. This state of tension forces him to do something to satisfy the need d reduce his tension. The need is satisfied by the attainment of a goal perceived by the person himself and learning results from action directed towards the attainment of that goal. An example will make the matters clear:
The child, who has an appetite for candy, feels a need and if a challenging problem is placed before him to find out the candy which is hidden under a book placed in a shelf in an almirah he feels a kind of tension and is motivated to search it out. Till he does not discover the book under which the piece of candy lies, he remains in the state of tension. The stronger is the appetite for candy, and the stronger is the desire to find it out, and the stronger is the motivation to learn. Other definitions of motivation and motives are given below: 1. Motivation is the process of arousing, sustaining and regulating activity.- Good 2. A motive is particular internal factor or condition that tends to initiate and sustain activity.-J.P. Guilford 3. Motives are conditions physiological and psychological within the organism that dispose it to act in certain ways.-McDougall 4. A motive is a state or set of the individual which disposes him for certain behaviour and for seeking certain goal.-Woodworth The place of Motivation in Learning: Motivation, arouses, sustains, directs and determines the intensity of learning effort. Therefore, it is said that without motivation learning is not possible at any level. Motivation is at the heart of learning. It is sin qua non for learning. And no teacher who hopes to induce learning can ignore motivation. The central problem faced by the school involves motivational status of its students. Various ways and means that have been devised to motivate the students to learn are given below: (1) Intrinsic and Extrinsic Forms of Motivation: Motivation has been classified as intrinsic and extrinsic. The intrinsically motivated child does an act, because the mere performance of the act pleases him and because its outcome satisfies him. For example, he solves a problem because he has a strong desire to do so and he does so whether his teacher requires him to do or not. He solves even the most difficult mathematical problems because finding a solution appeals to him as an end in itself. Intrinsic Motivation is a state of impulsion in which the learner wants to learn something for its own sake. The teacher, who impresses upon the child the idea that learning a particular subject has its own rewards, is using the most powerful weapon. If all our activities were intrinsically motivated we would have derived very great satisfaction in life. Very few learners learn a thing for its own sake. Hence intrinsic motivation is unrealistic in practice. Extrinsic Motivation is defined as a state in which a child learns something not for his own sake, but as a means of obtaining some desirable goal which is artificially related to the activity. For example, the child, who solves a problem in algebra or who does his home assignments not for his own sake but either to avoid his teacher's sarcasm, is extrinsically motivated. Many students learn a lesson or master a subject because they want to gain approval or prestige or regard from their teachers or their parents or their class-mates. In reality, most of the behaviour of children in schools or adults in general is extrinsically motivated. A boy, who wants to learn how to deliver a speech in the public both for his own sake and for the cup he will win, is in a fortunate position. Extrinsic Motivation
Some of the common forms of extrinsic motivation are as under: (a) Purposive striving, goals and ideals:
The goal and purposes of learning clearly perceived by...
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