Sino Soviet Split

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Sino-Soviet Split
Thesis: The reasons for the Sino Soviet split can be placed upon the political, economic and social difference between the nations; especially the ideological differences. Political
Long Term
* Stalin feared Mao as a rival for the leadership of the communist world * Didn’t want the Cold War to spread to Asia
* Stalin underestimated the CCP
* Believed the GMD would be stronger,
* Wanted the communists to unite
* Even when the victory of the CCP seemed inevitable. * Mao became convinced that Stalin wanted a divided and weak China to leave the USSR dominant in Asia. * He saw Stalin's policies as self-interested rather than true revolutionary doctrines * The Sino-Soviet treaty of Alliance

* Mao was invited to visit Moscow in 1950, which produced the Sino-Soviet Alliance Treaty, the first between the USSR and China * The treaty offered China the promise of Soviet expertise and low interest aid. * American forces, under the UN flag came close to the Chinese border due to involvement in Korean War, Stalin encouraged China to send troops to Korea * The Soviets gave material assistance to the one million Chinese troops engaged in battle * Stalin wanted China to pay for the weapons that were given to the Chinese Short Term

* Khrushchev undermined the potential for the easing of tensions * The crushing of the Hungarian uprising
* Mao saw as Soviet problems in containing reactionary forces in the West * Khrushchev’s doctrine of “peaceful coexistence” with the West * Implying that the global revolution could be achieved by means other than armed struggle * The USA didn’t recognize China

* Mao saw this as ideological heresy
* Conference of Communist Parties, 1957
* Mao attended this conference hoping Tito to assist
* Yugoslav leader did not appear
* Mao called on the USSR to abandon revisionism
* Declared that international revolution could not be achieved by working with western Capitalists * Khrushchev’s visit to Beijing in 1958
* The talks were therefore not productive
* Deng used the occasion to attack Soviet policy
* Stating that the Soviets had betrayed the international Communist movement * That the Soviets were guilty of seeing themselves as the only true “Marxist-Leninists” * That the Soviets had sent spies posing as technical advisers into China. * Taiwan, 1958

* Mao could not tolerate the GMD and Chiang Kai-Shek as an independent state off the mainland of China * He sought for reunification
* Was furious for the US support to Taiwan Nationalists. * In 1958, Mao decided to test the USA again
* Without informing the Soviets, he ordered a build-up of troop maneuvers in the region, giving the impression that China was preparing an attack on Taiwan * The USA responded by preparing for war with China  * Mao did not lunch the attack

* Was not prepared to fight the USA, even less without Soviet support * Soviets denounce the GLF
* In 1959, Soviets called GLF as faulty in design and practice * Mao was personally furious at this criticism
* The Soviets declared that the concepts and applications used were “unorthodox”, and the Soviet press revealed the failure, denouncing Mao. * Albania
* In 1961, the USSR withdrew aid from Albania
* China considered this as an attack on their system as well and soon after the PRC offered to replace Soviet money and technical assistance to Albania * This conflict led to the final partition of diplomatic relations between the countries, after ten years of increasing hostilities. * The Cultural Revolution, 1966-1976

* Meanwhile the USSR accused China of trading illegally with the apartheid regime...
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