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This full text paper was peer reviewed at the direction of IEEE Communications Society subject matter experts for publication in the ICC 2007 proceedings.

Performance Analysis of SINEMO: Seamless
IP-diversity based Network Mobility
Pulak K Chowdhury,
Abu S Reaz,
Mohammed Atiquzzaman
School of Computer Science,
University of Oklahoma,
Norman, OK 73019-6151
Email: {pulak, sayeem reaz,

William Ivancic
Satellite Networks & Architectures Branch,
NASA Glenn Research Center,
21000 Brookpark Rd. MS 54-8,
Cleveland, OH 44135

Abstract— IETF has proposed Mobile IPv6-based Network Mobility (NEMO) basic support protocol (BSP) to support network mobility. NEMO BSP inherits all the drawbacks of Mobile IPv6, such as inefficient routing path, single point of failure, high handover latency and packet loss, and high packet overhead. To address these drawbacks, we proposed an IP diversity-based network mobility management scheme called Seamless IP-diversity based NEtwork MObility (SINEMO). In this paper, we develop

analytical models to analyze and compare the performance of
SINEMO and NEMO BSP. Our analysis shows that SINEMO
enhances the performance of network mobililty compared to
NEMO BSP. We have implemented a testbed for SINEMO to
support our claim of SINEMO’s high performance.

A mobile network is a set of IP nodes that move collectively as a unit. Space satellites, trains, or ships with several IP enabled devices are examples of mobile networks. IETF has
recently proposed NEtwork MObility (NEMO) Basic Support
Protocol (BSP) [1] to support the mobility of a network. NEMO BSP [1] is an extension of Mobile IPv6 and allows all nodes
in the mobile network to continue ongoing connection while
the network moves. In the NEMO BSP architecture, a Mobile
Router (MR) takes care of all the nodes within the Mobile
Network (MN). Mobile Router allows an entire network to
roam; thus devices connected to the MR are not aware of
NEMO BSP is based on Mobile IPv6, and hence it inherits
the following drawbacks of Mobile IPv6 - (1) in NEMO BSP,
all packets are routed through the HA of the mobile router,
giving rise to inefficient routing path, (2) packet overhead also increases for encapsulating packet twice, (3) during handover, the MR has to acquire its new care of address in the foreign network and register the new address with its HA which

increases handover latency due to multiple level of indirection; incurring packet loss during handover period. A number of
proposals to improve performance of NEMO BSP have been
introduced in the literature. Petander et al. proposed a makebefore-break handover scheme to improve the handover and routing performance of NEMO BSP [2]. Other papers ([3], [4]) proposed different route optimization techniques to improve the The research reported in this paper was funded by NASA Grant NAG3-2922.

routing of NEMO BSP. Ryu et al. [5] proposed a seamless handover technique for NEMO BSP. The above papers individually address various limitations of NEMO BSP. However, none of
them provide a complete solution, taking into account all the limitations of NEMO BSP [6].
To address the aforementioned drawbacks of NEMO BSP,
we have proposed an IP diversity-based network mobility
management scheme called Seamless IP diversity based NEtwork MObility (SINEMO) [7]. SINEMO is an extension of SIGMA (Seamless IP diversity based Generalized Mobility
Architecture) [8], an IP-diversity based mobility management scheme developed through collaborative efforts of NASA and
University of Oklahoma for handling the mobility of individual nodes in IP networks; and SINEMO supports the mobility of
a whole network. SINEMO is an end-to-end solution instead
of a network layer solution (like NEMO BSP) for network
mobility, and has the following advantages over NEMO BSP.
SINEMO - (1) exploits IP diversity [7] to achieve a seamless handover...
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