Sigmund Freud and Albert Bandura's Theories on Personality Development

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This paper will be examining two theories on personality development; Sigmund Freud’s argument on the three structures of personality and Albert Bandura’s findings on social learning also called observational learning (Witt & Mossler, 2010). Sigmund Freud the neurologist based his study on his grown mental patients while Albert Bandura the psychologist based his theory on observing young children within pre-set environments. Both Sigmund Freud and Albert Bandura have two different academic approaches to personality development. Sigmund Freud presented structured mental tendencies (Id, Ego and Super-ego) on personality development while on the other hand Albert Bandura stressed on external influences. Both theories have credible contrasting as well as similar assumptions. A theory can be defined as, “A coherent set of ideas that helps to explain data and make predictions” (Santrock, 1989, p. 33). Santrock further explained that a theory makes assumptions that can be tested to determine their accuracy. Personality, according to the Oxford Dictionary from http://oxforddictionaries.com/definition/personality is the combination of characteristics or qualities that form an individual’s distinctive character. In other words it is the combination of mental, emotional and physical character traits that are peculiar to an individual. The Oxford Dictionary also defined development as “A specified state of growth or advancement; or a change in situation.” Both Freud’s and Bandura’s theories are based on personality development. Sigmund Freud presented an argument that man’s personality is mainly governed by three different levels of consciousness or mental state; the id, the ego and the super-ego. He argued that the id is a demanding inborn force that drives a newborn to desire food, pass urine, defecate, be warm and gain sexual pleasure. He went on further to argue that the id demands immediate gratification and personal pleasure. It usually wants satisfaction...
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