Screening of Cellulolytic Activity of Locally Isolated Thermophilic Fungi
Screening of Cellulolytic Activity of Locally Isolated Thermophilic
To screen for thermophilic fungi as producer of fungal cellulase.
One of the most important sources of carbon that is abundantly found on this planet is cellulose. While cellulase is the enzyme to degrade this carbon and it is a key enzyme in the bio refinery process of producing green chemicals (Ponnambalam et al., 2011). In screening for the cellulolytic fungi, several qualitative display of cellulolytic such congo red clearing zone assay, gel diffusion assay and dyed congo red filter paper clearing zone assay can be used. In this screening, congo red clearing zone assay is performed on 9 unknown fungi isolates on CMC media. Cellulose degradation and its subsequent utilizations are important for global carbon sources (Ponnambalam et al., 2011). The hydrolysis of cellulose has become an interesting research and industrial research since it is one of the renewable source for bioconversion (Bai et al., 2012). Cellulose will be degraded into glucose and then further used for the production of subsequent products such ethanol, organic acids and other chemicals. During the growth of fungi, cellulase can be induced and synthesized by them as long as there is presence of cellulose in the growth media (Lee and Koo, 2001). Different types of cellulase are required in order to complete the hydrolysis of cellulosic materials into end products (Yi et al., 1999). These are endoglucanase, exocellobiohydrolase and β-glucosidase. The endoglucanase will randomly hydrolyze β-1,4 bonds in the cellulose molecule and the exocellobiohydrolase in most cases release a cellobiose unit showing a recurrent reaction from the chain extremity. Lastly, the cellobiose is converted to glucose by glucosidase (Bhat el a., 1997). Predominantly, fungi are the main source in...
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