Scientific Revolution Summary

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Prior to the scientific revolution, the Old World view on science placed heavy emphasis on religion and had geocentric beliefs, meaning that it was widely believed that the Earth was the center of the universe. Then, the scientific revolution of the 17th century established a new view of the universe, reexamined the old theories, and emphasized natural philosophy and science. In 1543 Nicolaus Copernicus published On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, a book which criticized the geocentric theory of the universe, challenged the Ptolemaic system and established a heliocentric model of the universe (the sun is the center of the universe). Then, Tycho Brahe continued the work on Copernicus’ heliocentric hypothesis. Brahe’s research was then passed down to Johannes Kepler, who created the first astronomical model of a heliocentric universe. In 1609 Kepler published The New Astronomy, which stated that the paths of planets are elliptical, not circular, and proved Copernicus’ heliocentric theories. After Kepler came Galileo Galilei. He was the first to use a telescope, which he used to discover 4 moons around Jupiter, provided concrete evidence of a heliocentric universe, popularized the Copernican (heliocentric) system, and articulated the concept of a universe subject to mathematical laws, where all of nature is mathematical and mechanical. After that, Isaas Newton established the basis for physics and psychology, published Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy in 1687, discovered the laws of motion and universal gravitation, stated that every object is affected through gravity, and explained the movement of the planets. The scientific revolution was caused by: the establishment of universities, the Renaissance, expansion, improved technology, and the Reformation. The changing science influenced philosophers to use math and the language of machinery to explain the world. They compared the world to a clock and stated that humans can control and...
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