According to Bennett (1997): “Scientific management is based on the philosophies of economic rationality, efficiency, individualism and the scientific analysis of work”. Taylor is still known as the father of scientific management. All the way through his time Taylor was trying to improve shop floor productivity; many of Taylor’s principles came from his own personal experience. Taylor discovered new phenomenon called “soldiering” while he was working in a factory. Taylor came to conclusion that soldiering can be caused by three things: firstly, the belief that productivity increases when the need for as many workers would decrease. Secondly, wage systems which do not pay financial reward for additional work will encourage low productivity. The last thing is that workers waste a lot of time depending on rule of thumb methods (which is almost exact opposite of scientific management). Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856-1915, Philadelphia) was a trained engineer who advocated the concept of Industrial Efficiency. Taylor is known as the father of scientific management and is regarded as one of the most successful management consultants. He is famous mostly for “Time and Motion study” and the “Piece Rate” system he introduced. Taylor made some changes which encouraged managers to change organisation’s culture. He stated the importance of management commitment and the need for gradual implementation and education. He described the problem which is involved the changes like complete revolution in the mental attitude and the habits, especially those which is engaged in the management. Taylor believed that there was only one method of work that can maximize efficiency and this method can be discovered through maximized study and analysis. This involves the gradual substitution of science for 'rule of thumb' all the way through the mechanical arts. Scientific management requires few things like a careful investigation, developed under rule of thumb. A second element is time and motion study that has been made of the speed attainable with each of these implements. This implement, then is the adopted as standard in place of the many different kinds before in use and it remains standard for all workmen to use until superseded by an implement which has been shown, through motion and time study, to be still better. An important problem to study or use scientific management can be low level education and the work force. Most of the workers in large companies were not qualified enough to work as a managers or supervisors, most of them were immigrant who didn’t have proper education. In Taylor’s view, supervisors or workers must have education and they have to use it to motivate workers. Taylor found the key how to solve a problem and it was a separate planning from execution. "In almost all the mechanic arts the science which underlies each act of each workman is so great and amounts to so much that the workman who is best suited to actually doing the work is incapable of fully understanding this science..." To apply his solution, Taylor created planning departments, staffed them with engineers, and gave them the responsibility to:
1. Develop scientific methods for doing work.
2. Establish goals for productivity.
3. Establish systems of rewards for meeting the goals.
4. Train employees in how to use the methods and thereby meet the goals. In Taylor’s view the managers of his time were very useful, but the key to make the good profit were workers and they were more helpful to achieve high productivity, but that high levels of productivity expected from worker initiative were rarely attained. He supposed four principles of scientific management to be followed my managers: 1. Develop a “science” for each element of a worker’s job. 2. Scientifically select workers.
3. Scientifically train and develop workers.
4. Achieve good relationships between workers and managers and provide good planning and other support to workers in...