Weather Patterns and Climate Change
Every place, country, city, region has its own climate. Climate plays one of the important roles in people’s life. Climate is defined as the average weather, which means variety of weather conditions as rain, snow, hail, sun, and wind over period of time about 30 years that can be measured in any particular place.( IPCC Third Assessment Report - Climate Change 2001; editor:A.P.Baede) Climate change is a variation of average weather. There are 2 causes of climate change. The first is human activity which includes deforestation, burning fossil fuels, agriculture, transportation and infrastructure. The second is natural causes which include volcanic eruptions and variations in solar outputs. These causes have negative effect on the natural environment which leads to increasing of temperature, increasing in sea level, changing of precipitations, extremely weather, killing species of animals, birds, fish and plants. This essay will show that the causes of climate change have different effects on the environment. Atmospheric carbon dioxide variations, volcanic eruptions and solar outputs, have negative impacts on animals, plants, and environment. Climate is always changeable. One winter can be early, another late; one summer wet, another dry (Carter 2000,34). For the last century climate has dramatically changed. Consequences of climate change may manifest itself as rapid and through the long period of time. Climate change could lead to number of catastrophic disasters as droughts, earthquakes, floods, hurricanes, tornadoes and volcanic eruptions. For example earthquakes in New Zealand, China, Chilie, and Haiti, floods in Australia, Pakistan and India, volcanic eruption in Iceland, tornado in Dakota in the USA, Montana supercell thunderstorm and recent disasters in Japan. By climatologists’ evidence there are two causes with several factors that have a response for the Earth’s climate. They are: human activity which includes deforestation, burning fossil fuels, agriculture, transportation and infrastructure, and natural causes which include volcanic eruptions and variations in solar output. (Pidwirny. 2006). Human activity affects on greenhouse gases, which has negative consequences on many things. Currently the concentration of greenhouse gases increases. Carbon dioxide(CO2 ), nitrous oxide(N2O), sulfur dioxide(SO2) and methane(CH4) are the main greenhouse gases (Berrou et al. 2010, 217). Agriculture and energy activities make the concentration of methane to rise. Land use changes, agriculture and industrial process influence on nitrous oxide concentration. Agriculture, deforestation and burning of fossil fuels for energy affect on the concentration of carbon dioxide. Coal burning, power stations and burning of biomass emit sulfur dioxide (Carter 2000, 34). All of these greenhouse gases have dramatically increased because of the industrial revolution which took the last 200 years (Carter 2000, 34). Comparing with other gases carbon dioxide is more responsible for the greenhouse effect (Pidwirny. 2006). Carbon dioxide is emitted from such processes like deforestation, the burning of coal, oil, gas, and through the carbon cycle. One more important greenhouse gas is methane. Animals used in agriculture such as horses, sheep, pigs, dairy cows, camels and goats emit methane into the air. The process of coal mining and oil drilling also release methane. Greenhouse gases regulate the Earth’s climate. If the concentration of greenhouse gases increases, the temperature will increase; and if greenhouse concentration decreases, the temperature will also decrease. Currently the average global temperature all over the world is 15˚ Celsius, and it could be – 18˚ Celsius without greenhouse gases (Pidwirny. 2006). Earth could have been a frozen planet without greenhouse gases which makes the Earth habitable. In outline, climate change coincides with exchange of momentum, chemicals, and energy between the...
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