Science Investigatory Project

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Saccharification of Pineapple Ananas comosus peelings through
Dilute Acid Hydrolysis

Rhoy M. Capul
Ma. Michelle Carmel O. Aquino
Alia Jenine S. Caceres

San Pablo City National High School
San Pablo City

Mrs. Glory M. Serrano
Research Adviser

A Science Investigatory Project in fulfillment of Research project
S.Y. 2010-2011

Abstract
The pineapple is one of the leading products in the Philippines, as it thrives in tropical climates. However, the pineapple peelings have low commercial value and are therefore merely thrown away, contributing to the Philippines waste problem. This study entitled “Saccharification of Pineapple Ananas comosus peelings through Dilute Acid Hydrolysis” was conducted to know the concentration of sugar content which can be used for other purposes like bioethanol. Three samples were used, each sample was composed of two trials; S1T1 (60 degree Celsius for 30 min.), S1T2 (60 degree Celsius for 60 min.), S2T1 (70 degree Celsius for 30 min.), S2T2 (70 degree Celsius for 60 min.), S3T1 (80 degree Celsius for 30 min.), S3T2 (80 degree Celsius for 60 min). The phenol- sulfuric acid method was used to determine the concentration of sugar content present in the substrate. The test revealed that the dilute acid hydrolysis is an effective way and can saccharify pineapple peelings based on the standard curve. However, the temperature and time was found out that they both have no significant difference in yielding greater concentration of sugar as what as the statistical analysis revealed using Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann Whitney U-test.

INTRODUCTION
Background of the study
Pineapple (Ananas comosus) is the common name for a tropical plant and its edible fruit which are coalesced berries. Pineapples are the only bromeliad fruit in widespread cultivation. It can be grown as an ornamental, especially from the leafy tops. Some sources say that the plant will flower after about 24 months & produce a fruit during the following six months while others indicate a 20-month timetable. Pineapple is eaten fresh or canned or juiced. It is popularly used in desserts, salads, as a complement to meat dishes and infruit cocktail. The popularity of the pineapple is due to its sweet-sour taste containing 15% sugar and malic and citric fruit acids. It is also high in vitamin B1, B2, B6 and C. Its protein-digesting enzyme bromelain seems to help digestion at the end of a high protein meal. In the Philippines, pineapple leaves are used as the source of a textile fiber called piña. The pineapple is a herbaceous short-lived perennial plant which grows to 1.0 to 1.5 metres (3.3 to 4.9 ft) tall. The plant only produces one fruit and then dies. Commercially suckers that appear around the base are cultivated. It has 30 or more long, narrow, fleshy, trough-shaped leaves with sharp spines along the margins that are 30 to 100 centimetres (1.0 to 3.3 ft) long, surrounding a thick stem. In the first year of growth the axis lengthens and thickens, bearing numerous leaves in close spirals. After 12 to 20 months the stem grows into a spike-like inflorescence up to 15 cm long with over 100 spirally arranged, trimerous flowers, each subtended by a bract. Flower colours vary, depending on variety, from lavender, through light purple to red. The ovaries develop into berries which coalesce into a large, compact, multiple accessory fruit. The fruit of a pineapple is arranged in two interlocking helices, eight in one direction, thirteen in the other, each being a Fibonacci number. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pineapple) Saccharification is the process of breaking a complex carbohydrate into its monosaccharide components. It is the hydrolysis of carbohydrates such as cellulose and starch. It increases hydrolysis rates by reducing product inhibition of enzymes and reduces tank usage by combining the processes into one...
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