a. SATURATED FATS FROM NONSATURATED FATS
An unsaturated fat is a fat or fatty acid in which there is at least one double bond within the fatty acid chain. A fat molecule is monounsaturated if it contains one double bond, and polyunsaturated if it contains more than one double bond. Where double bonds are formed, hydrogen atoms are eliminated. Thus, asaturated fat has no double bonds, has the maximum number of hydrogens bonded to the carbons, and therefore is "saturated" with hydrogen atoms. In cellularmetabolism, unsaturated fat molecules contain somewhat less energy (i.e., fewer calories) than an equivalent amount of saturated fat. The greater the degree of unsaturation in a fatty acid (i.e., the more double bonds in the fatty acid) the more vulnerable it is to lipid peroxidation (rancidity). Antioxidants can protect unsaturated fat from lipid peroxidation.
Saturated fat is fat that consists of triglycerides containing only saturated fatty acids. Saturated fatty acids have no double bonds between the individual carbonatoms of the fatty acid chain. That is, the chain of carbon atoms is fully "saturated" with hydrogen atoms. There are many kinds of naturally occurring saturated fatty acids, which differ mainly in number of carbon atoms, from 3 carbons (propionic acid) to 36 (hexatriacontanoic acid). Various fats contain different proportions of saturated and unsaturated fat. Examples of foods containing a high proportion of saturated fat include animal fats such as cream, cheese, butter, and ghee; suet, tallow, lard, and fatty meats; as well as certain vegetable products such as coconut oil, cottonseed oil, palm kernel oil,chocolate, and many prepared food
b. HIGH DENSITY LIPIDS FROM LOW DENSITY LIPIDS
High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is one of the five major groups of lipoproteins, which, in order of sizes, largest to smallest, are chylomicrons, VLDL, IDL, LDL, and HDL, which enable lipids likecholesterol and triglycerides to be transported within the water-based bloodstream. In healthy individuals, about thirty percent of blood cholesterol is carried by HDL. Blood tests typically report HDL-C level, i.e. the amount of cholesterol contained in HDL particles. It is often contrasted with low-density or LDL cholesterol or LDL-C. HDL particles are able to remove cholesterol from within artery atheroma and transport it back to the liver for excretion or re-utilization, which is the main reason why the cholesterol carried within HDL particles (HDL-C) is sometimes called "good cholesterol" (despite the fact that it is exactly the same as the cholesterol in LDL particles). Those with higher levels of HDL-C seem to have fewer problems with cardiovascular diseases, while those with low HDL-C cholesterol levels (less than 40 mg/dL or about 1 mmol/L) have increased rates for heart disease. While higher HDL levels are correlated with cardiovascular health, no incremental increase in HDL has been proven to improve health. In other words, while high HDL levels might correlate with better cardiovascular health, specifically increasing one's HDL might not increase cardiovascular health. Additionally, those few individuals producing an abnormal, apparently more efficient, HDL ApoA1 protein variant calledApoA-1 Milano, have low measured HDL-C levels yet very low rates of cardiovascular events even with high blood cholesterol values
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is one of the five major groups of lipoproteins, which in order of size, largest to smallest, are chylomicrons, VLDL, IDL, LDL, and HDL, that enable transport of multiple different fat molecules, including cholesterol, within the water around cells and within the water-based bloodstream. Studies have shown that higher levels of type-B LDL particles (as opposed to type-A LDL particles) promote health problems and cardiovascular disease, they are often informally called the bad cholesterol particles, (as opposed to HDL particles, which are frequently...
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