Sanitary Land Filling Process For Solid Waste Management In Rural Urban Relations- A Case In Sisdol Landfill Site
Term Paper on Rural Urban linkages|
Rural-urban interaction can be defined as linkages across space such as flows of people, good, money, information and wastes and linkages between sectors such as agriculture, services, etc. Rural urban relation is a fundamental element of regional development. The balance rural urban linkages strongly and mutually supports socio-economic development of both rural urban (Pradhan, 2000). According to UNCHS, rural-urban linkages are essential for both side’s economic growth and sustainable development. Their strength of connection is robust physically, culturally, economically and environmentally (Karna, 2003). In rural urban linkage urbanization is seen as an invisible force, transforming pattern and styles of living not only within urban areas themselves, but also with surrounding rural areas (UNCHS website). Urban centers are economically linked with their hinterland in variety of exchange activities. The five processes of trade, private capital flows, innovation diffusion and information exchange, public capital flows, and migration-commuting- employment expansion can summarize these activities.
In Nepal, majority of people are living in rural areas. With the pace of time, urbanization level is growing with increasing small and intermediate urban centers. The projection based on current growth rate shows that Nepal could have half of its population living in municipal areas in three decades from now (UNDP). Of the total 58 towns (municipality), 43 are small with population below 40,000 and constitute of the total urban population.
Urbanization plays as a powerful driver of economic growth. But the rapid increase in urbanization is bringing increased pressures on environment-related services and environmental health. Environmental health costs in urban areas are estimated to be nearly US$51.2 million in 2005, which is 0.7% of Nepal’s GDP (CEA- 2007 Report). According to CEA report- 2007, three major areas in urban environmental pressure in Nepal are solid waste management, air quality and industrial pollution. Among these, one of the major areas of growing concern from rapid urbanization is generation of solid waste. In a Central Bureau of Statistics survey in 1996, most urban residents ranked solid waste as the number one environmental problem in their city (Central Bureau of Statistics 1997). Although this poll was conducted a decade ago, problems associated with solid waste have worsened.
Source- CBS 1997
Urbanization and solid waste
Solid waste is the byproduct of human activity which tends to increase with rapid urbanization, living standards and changing consumption patterns. Management of increasing amounts of solid waste has become a major challenge in many cities in developing countries creating different kind of public health problems. The waste accumulation on the streets for several days or inappropriate disposal of waste along the riverbanks creating adverse affect on the aesthetic value of urban which might negatively effect on tourism too.
If solid waste is properly used, it can be a valuable resource and major source of revenue. But if it is not properly managed, it can create serious and adverse impact on environment and public health. Solid waste management is therefore a critical component with urban sanitation and it is also one of the most important and resource intensive service which can positively foster the rural urban linkage. The major issue in recent years in developing countries is the dumping of wastes in rural areas because of lack of suitable and sufficient land to dump waste in urban area. Improper management of solid waste can create various adverse environmental and health effect in rural as well as in urban areas.
Among the various solid waste...